Fine Art

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Ordo: Ericales

Familia: Primulaceae
Subfamilia: Primuloideae
Genus: Androsace
Sectiones (incomplete): A. sect. Androsace – A. sect. Aretia

A. adenocephala – A. adfinis – A. aizoon – A. alaschanica – A. albana – A. alpina – A. armeniaca – A. axillaris – A. baltistanica – A. brachystegia – A. brevis – A. caduca – A. carnea – A. chaixii – A. chamaejasme – A. ciliata – A. coccinea – A. cylindrica – A. delavayi – A. elongata – A. filiformis – A. foliosa – A. geraniifolia – A. globifera – A. hausmannii – A. hedraeantha – A. helvetica – A. hookeriana – A. idahoensis – A. incana – A. intermedia – A. komovensis – A. lactea – A. laevigata – A. lanuginosa – A. mathildae – A. maxima – A. mucronifolia – A. multiscapa – A. muscoidea – A. obtusifolia – A. occidentalis – A. pubescens – A. pyrenaica – A. rigida – A. rioxana – A. rotundifolia – A. sarmentosa – A. saxifragifolia – A. sempervivoides – A. septentrionalis – A. spinulifera – A. squarrosula – A. stenophylla – A. studiosorum – A. strigillosa – A. tapete – A. tanggulashanensis – A. umbellata – A. vandellii – A. villosa – A. vitaliana – A. wardii – A. wulfeniana – A. yargongensis – A. zambalensis

Androsace L., Sp. Pl. 141. 1753.

Type species: Androsace septentrionalis L.


Amadea Adans.
Aretia Haller ex L.
Douglasia Lindl.
Drosace A.Nelson
Gregoria Duby
Macrotybus Dulac
Vitaliana Sesl.

Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 141.


Hassler, M. 2020. Androsace. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2020. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 May 24. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Androsace in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 May 24. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Androsace. Published online. Accessed: 24 May 2020.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Праломнік
Deutsch: Mannsschild
English: Mountain Primroses
suomi: Nukit
français: Androsace
한국어: 봄맞이꽃속
lietuvių: Vyrskydė
polski: Naradka
русский: Проломник

Androsace, commonly known as rock jasmine,[2] is a genus of flowering plants in the family Primulaceae, second only to Primula in the number of species.[3] It is predominantly Arctic–alpine, with many species in the Himalayas (where the genus originated), the mountains of central Asia, the Caucasus, and the southern and central European mountain systems, particularly the Alps and the Pyrenees.

Plants of this genus are sometimes known as rock jasmines or fairy candelabras, and are widely cultivated for their dense cushions covered in white or pink flowers. There are roughly 110 species.[4][5]

These plants have small entire or toothed leaves which form a basal rosette.[6]


Recent molecular studies show that the genera Douglasia (found in north-western North America and easternmost Siberia), Pomatosace (an Himalayan endemic) and Vitaliana (a European endemic) are nested within Androsace.[3][7] Phylogenetic studies have also demonstrated that the ancestor of Androsace first appeared about 35 Mya ago and was most probably an annual species.[8] Evolution towards the denser morphology of cushions took place two times independently in Asia and in Europe.[8]

As of December 2019, Plants of the World Online recognizes the following species, including those formerly placed in Douglasia and Vitaliana.[9][10]

Androsace adenocephala Hand.-Mazz.
Androsace adfinis Biroli
Androsace aflatunensis Ovcz.
Androsace aizoon Duby
Androsace akbaitalensis Derganc ex O.Fedtsch.
Androsace alaica Ovcz. & S.B.Astan.
Androsace alaschanica Maxim.
Androsace alaskana Coville & Standl. ex Hultén
Androsace albana Steven
Androsace alchemilloides Franch.
Androsace alpina (L.) Lam.
Androsace americana Wendelbo
Androsace apus Franch. ex R.Knuth
Androsace × aretioides (Gaudin) Hegetschw.
Androsace × aretioides A.Kern.
Androsace argentea (C.F.Gaertn.) Lapeyr.
Androsace armeniaca Duby
Androsace axillaris (Franch.) Franch.
Androsace baltistanica Y.J.Nasir
Androsace beringensis (S.Kelso, Jurtzev & D.F.Murray) Cubey
Androsace bidentata K.Koch

Androsace bisulca Bureau & Franch.
Androsace brachystegia Hand.-Mazz.
Androsace brahmaputrae Hand.-Mazz.
Androsace bryomorpha Lipsky
Androsace bulleyana Forrest
Androsace bungeana Schischk. & Bobrov
Androsace caduca Ovcz.
Androsace caespitosa Lehm. ex Spreng.
Androsace cernuiflora Y.C.Yang & R.F.Huang
Androsace chaixii Gren. & Godr.
Androsace chamaejasme Wulfen
Androsace ciliata DC.
Androsace ciliifolia Ludlow
Androsace constancei Wendelbo
Androsace coronata (Watt) Hand.-Mazz.
Androsace cortusifolia Nakai
Androsace croftii Watt
Androsace cuscutiformis Franch.
Androsace cuttingii C.E.C.Fisch.
Androsace cylindrica DC.
Androsace darvasica Ovcz.
Androsace dasyphylla Bunge
Androsace delavayi Franch.
Androsace dielsiana R.Knuth
Androsace dissecta (Franch.) Franch.
Androsace diversifolia C.Y.Wu
Androsace duthieana R.Knuth
Androsace elatior Pax & K.Hoffm.
Androsace elongata L.
Androsace engleri R.Knuth
Androsace erecta Maxim.
Androsace eritrichioides Gand.
Androsace × escheri Brügger
Androsace euryantha Hand.-Mazz.
Androsace exscapa Maximova
Androsace fedtschenkoi Ovcz.
Androsace filiformis Retz.
Androsace flavescens Maxim.
Androsace foliosa Duby
Androsace forrestiana Hand.-Mazz.
Androsace gagnepainiana Hand.-Mazz.
Androsace geraniifolia Watt
Androsace globifera Duby
Androsace globiferoides (Kunth) Hand.-Mazz.
Androsace gmelinii (L.) Roem. & Schult.
Androsace gorodkovii Ovcz. & Karav.
Androsace graceae Forrest ex W.W.Sm.
Androsace gracilis Hand.-Mazz.
Androsace graminifolia C.E.C.Fisch.
Androsace halleri L.
Androsace handel-mazzettii Kress
Androsace harrissii Duthie
Androsace hausmannii Leyb.
Androsace hazarica R.R.Stewart ex Y.J.Nasir
Androsace hedreantha Griseb.
Androsace × heeri W.D.J.Koch
Androsace helvetica (L.) All.
Androsace hemisphaerica Ludlow
Androsace henryi Oliv.
Androsace hohxilensis R.F.Huang & S.K.Wu
Androsace hookeriana Klatt
Androsace hopeiensis Nakai
Androsace × hybrida A.Kern.
Androsace idahoensis (Douglass M.Hend.) Cubey
Androsace incana Lam.
Androsace integra (Maxim.) Hand.-Mazz.
Androsace intermedia Ledeb.
Androsace jacquemontii Duby
Androsace khokhrjakovii Mazurenko
Androsace khumbuensis Dentant
Androsace komovensis Schönsw. & Schneew.
Androsace kouytchensis Bonati
Androsace kuczerovii Knjaz.
Androsace kuvajevii Mazurenko
Androsace lactea L.
Androsace lactiflora Fisch. ex Willd.
Androsace laevigata (A.Gray) Wendelbo
Androsace laggeri A.Huet
Androsace lanuginosa Wall.
Androsace laxa C.M.Hu & Y.C.Yang
Androsace lehmanniana Spreng.
Androsace lehmannii Wall. ex Duby
Androsace limprichtii Pax & K.Hoffm.
Androsace longifolia Turcz.
Androsace lowariensis Y.J.Nasir
Androsace ludlowiana Hand.-Mazz.
Androsace mairei H.Lév.
Androsace × marpensis G.F.Sm.
Androsace mathildae Levier
Androsace maxima L.
Androsace medifissa Y.L.Chen & Y.C.Yang
Androsace minor (Hand.-Mazz.) C.M.Hu & Y.C.Yang
Androsace mirabilis Franch.
Androsace mollis Hand.-Mazz.
Androsace montana (A.Gray) Wendelbo
Androsace mucronifolia Watt
Androsace multiscapa Duby
Androsace muscoidea Duby
Androsace nivalis (Lindl.) Wendelbo
Androsace nortonii Ludlow
Androsace obtusifolia All.
Androsace occidentalis Pursh
Androsace ochotensis Roem. & Schult.
Androsace ojhorensis Y.J.Nasir
Androsace ovalifolia Y.C.Yang
Androsace ovczinnikovii Schischk. & Bobrov
Androsace pavlovskii Ovcz.
Androsace paxiana R.Knuth
Androsace × pedemontana Rchb.
Androsace phaeoblephara Hand.-Mazz.
Androsace podlechii Wendelbo
Androsace poissonii R.Knuth
Androsace pomeiensis C.M.Hu & Y.C.Yang
Androsace pubescens DC.
Androsace pyrenaica Lam.
Androsace refracta Hand.-Mazz.
Androsace rhizomatosa Hand.-Mazz.
Androsace rigida Hand.-Mazz.
Androsace rioxana A.Segura
Androsace rockii W.E.Evans
Androsace rotundifolia Hardw.
Androsace runcinata Hand.-Mazz.
Androsace russellii Y.J.Nasir
Androsace sajanensis Stepanov
Androsace salasii Kurtz
Androsace sarmentosa Wall.
Androsace selago Hook.f. & Thomson ex Klatt
Androsace sempervivoides Jacquem. ex Duby
Androsace septentrionalis L.
Androsace sericea Ovcz.
Androsace sessiliflora Turrill
Androsace similis Craib
Androsace spinulifera (Franch.) R.Knuth
Androsace squarrosula Maxim.
Androsace staintonii Y.J.Nasir
Androsace stenophylla (Petitm.) Hand.-Mazz.
Androsace strigillosa Franch.
Androsace sublanata Hand.-Mazz.
Androsace sutchuenensis Franch.
Androsace tanggulashanensis Y.C.Yang & R.F.Huang
Androsace tapete Maxim.
Androsace tibetica (Maxim.) R.Knuth
Androsace tonkinensis Bonati
Androsace tribracteata R.F.Huang
Androsace triflora Adams
Androsace umbellata (Lour.) Merr.
Androsace vegae R.Knuth
Androsace villosa L.
Androsace vitaliana (L.) Lapeyr.
Androsace wardii W.W.Sm.
Androsace wilsoniana Hand.-Mazz.
Androsace wulfeniana (Sieber ex W.D.J.Koch) Rchb.
Androsace yargongensis Petitm.
Androsace zambalensis (Petitm.) Hand.-Mazz.
Androsace zayulensis Hand.-Mazz.

Former Douglasia species

The online Flora of North America placed nine species in Douglasia[11] that are now included in Androsace (names in Androsace from Plants of the World Online[9]):

Douglasia arctica = Androsace americana
Douglasia alaskana = Androsace alaskana
Douglasia beringensis = Androsace beringensis
Douglasia gormanii = Androsace constancei
Douglasia idahoensis = Androsace idahoensis
Douglasia laevigata = Androsace laevigata
Douglasia montana = Androsace montana
Douglasia nivalis = Androsace nivalis
Douglasia ochotensis = Androsace ochotensis

New species describes in 2021

A group of scientist disentangled the morphology and ecology of Androsace genius in the French Alps and described three new species in 2021:[12]

Androsace vesulensis in the A. alpina group, endemic of the Mont Viso.
Androsace saussurei and A. delphinensis in the A. pubescens group, which grow on siliceous substrate and are endemic from Mont Blanc and Central Alps respectively.


The following species have gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit. All are mat-forming evergreen perennials.

A. lanuginosa (woolly rock jasmine)[13] - lilac pink
A. sempervivoides (sempervivum-leaved rock jasmine)[14] - mauve pink
A. studiosorum (rock jasmine)[15] - deep pink


Douglasia and Vitaliana were formerly treated as separate genera.
English Names for Korean Native Plants (PDF). Pocheon: Korea National Arboretum. 2015. p. 352. ISBN 978-89-97450-98-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2016 – via Korea Forest Service.
Gerald M. Schneeweiss; Peter Schönswetter; Sylvia Kelso; Harald Niklfeld (2004). "Complex biogeographic patterns in Androsace (Primulaceae) and related genera: evidence from phylogenetic analyses of nuclear internal transcribed spacer and plastid trnL-F sequences" (PDF). Systematic Biology. 53 (6): 856–876. doi:10.1080/10635150490522566. JSTOR 4135374. PMID 15764556.
Jepson Manual Treatment
Flora of China
Grey-Wilson, Christopher (2001). The Rock Garden Plant Primer. London: Timber Press. p. 47.
Trift I., Anderberg A. A. and Källersjö M. 2002. The monophyly of Primula (Primulaceae) evaluated by analysis of sequences from the chloroplast gene rbcL. Systematic Botany 27(2):396-407
Florian C. Boucher; Wilfried Thuiller; Cristina Roquet; Rolland Douzet; Serge Aubert; Nadir Alvarez; Sébastien Lavergne (2012). "Reconstructing the origins of high-alpine niches and cushion life form in the genus Androsace s.l. (Primulaceae)" (PDF proof). Evolution. 66 (4): 1255–1268. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01483.x. PMC 3999638. PMID 22486702.
"Androsace L.", Plants of the World Online, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2019-12-27
Dixon, C.J.; Gutermann, W.; Schönswetter, P. & Schneeweiss, G.M. (2016), "Taxonomy and nomenclature of the polymorphic European high mountain species Androsace vitaliana (L.) Lapeyr. (Primulaceae)", PhytoKeys (75): 93–106, doi:10.3897/phytokeys.75.10731, PMC 5234540, PMID 28127247
Kelso, Sylvia, "Douglasia", in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.), Flora of North America (online),, retrieved 2019-12-27
Boucher, Florian C.; Dentant, Cédric; Ibanez, Sébastien; Capblancq, Thibaut; Boleda, Martí; Boulangeat, Louise; Smyčka, Jan; Roquet, Cristina; Lavergne, Sébastien (2021-05-27). "Discovery of cryptic plant diversity on the rooftops of the Alps". Scientific Reports. 11 (1): 11128. Bibcode:2021NatSR..1111128B. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-90612-w. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 8159976. PMID 34045566.
"RHS Plantfinder - Androsace lanuginosa". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Androsace sempervivoides". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Androsace studiosorum". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 12 January 2018.

Plants, Fine Art Prints

Plants Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from ""
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World