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Yareta Peru

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Apiales

Familia: Apiaceae
Subfamilia: Azorelloideae
Genus: Azorella
Subgenus: Azorella subg. Andinae
Species: Azorella compacta

Azorella compacta Phil., 1891

Azorella columnaris H. Wolff
Azorella prismatoclada Domin
Azorella yareta Hauman
Laretia compacta (Philippi) Reiche
Laretia yareta (Hauman) Mathias & Constance apud R.L. Rodrig.

Native distribution areas:

Continental: Southern America
Peru, Bolivia (Cochabamba, La Paz, Oruro, Potos, Tarija), Argentina (Catamarca, Jujuy, Salta), Chile (Tarapaca, Antofagasta)

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

Philippi, R.A. 1891. Anales del Museo Nacional. Santiago de Chile 2(8): 28.


Hassler, M. 2018. Azorella compacta. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Sep 12. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Azorella compacta. Published online. Accessed: Sep 12 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Azorella compacta in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Sep 12. 2018. Azorella compacta. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Sep 12.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Azorella compacta in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Yareta, llareta
English: Yareta
español: Llareta, yareta
italiano: yareta, llareta
Türkçe: Yareta

Yareta or llareta (Azorella compacta, known historically as Azorella yareta, from yarita in the Quechua language) is a velvety, chartreuse cushion plant in the family Apiaceae and is native to South America. It grows in the Puna grasslands of the Andes in Peru, Bolivia, northern Chile and western Argentina at altitudes between 3,200 and 5,250 metres (10,500 and 17,220 ft).[1][2]
Distribution of flowers

Yareta is an evergreen perennial with a low, mat-like shape and hemispherical growth form that grows to around 6 m (~20 ft) in diameter.[3] The self-fertile, pink or lavender flowers are hermaphroditic and are pollinated by insects.

The plant prefers sandy, well-drained soils. It can grow in nutritionally poor soils that are acidic, neutral or basic (alkaline) at altitudes of up to 5,200 metres (17,100 ft).[2] Yareta is well-adapted to high insolation rates typical of the Andes highlands and cannot grow in shade. The plant's leaves grow into an extremely compact, dense mat that reduces heat and water loss.[4] This mat grows near the ground where air temperature is one or two degrees Celsius higher than the mean air temperature. This temperature difference is a result of the longwave radiation re-radiated by the soil surface, which is usually dark gray to black in the Puna.[4]

Yareta is estimated to grow approximately 1.5 centimetres (0.59 in) per year.[2] Many yaretas are estimated to be over 3,000 years old.[5] These oldest ones have been reported to grow as slowly as 1/18th inch (1.4 millimeters) per year.[6] Its very slow growth makes the traditional practice of harvesting it for fuel highly unsustainable.[7]

Plant in crevice in Eduardo Avaroa Andean Fauna National Reserve, Potosí, Bolivia

Close-up showing seeds

Texture of surface



"Image of Azorella compacta". chileflora. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
Kleier, Catherine; Rundel, Philip W. (August 2004). "Microsite requirements, population structure and growth of the cushion plant Azorella compacta in the tropical Chilean Andes". Austral Ecology. 29 (4): 461–470. doi:10.1111/j.1442-9993.2004.01386.x.
Pugnaire, Francisco I.; Morillo, José A.; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Gaxiola, Aurora (February 2020). "Azorella compacta : survival champions in extreme, high‐elevation environments". Ecosphere. 11 (2). doi:10.1002/ecs2.3031.
Wickens, G. E. (April 1995). "Llareta (Azorella Compacta, Umbelliferae): A review". Economic Botany. 49 (2): 207–212. doi:10.1007/BF02862926. ISSN 0013-0001. S2CID 37079723.
Stenger, Richard (2019-11-28). "The oldest living things on Earth". CNN Travel. Retrieved 2020-01-09.
Ralph, Carol P. (March 1978). "Observations on Azorella compacta (Umbelliferae)". Biotropica. 10 (1): 62 plus photo p. 63.
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