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Bacopa monnieri

Bacopa monnieri (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Plantaginaceae
Tribus: Gratioleae
Genus: Bacopa
Species: Bacopa monnieri

Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 98: 94 (1946).

Bacopa monnieria
Gratiola monnieria
Lysimachia monnieri


Pennell, F.W. 1946. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia, PA 98: 94.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Bacopa monnieri in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service.

Vernacular names
অসমীয়া: ব্ৰাহ্মী শাক
বাংলা: ব্রাহ্মী
English: Coastal Waterhyssop, Brahmi, Thyme-leafed gratiola, Water hyssop
suomi: Pikkubakopa
हिन्दी: ब्राह्मी
日本語: オトメアゼナ, 乙女畔菜
मराठी: ब्राम्ही
नेपाली: जलब्राह्मी
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਬ੍ਰਾਹਮੀ
संस्कृतम्: ब्राह्मी
slovenčina: bakopa drobnolistá
Tagalog: ulasimang-aso

Bacopa monnieri is a perennial, creeping herb native to the wetlands of southern and Eastern India, Australia, Europe, Africa, Asia, and North and South America.[2] It is known by the common names water hyssop,[1] waterhyssop, brahmi,[2] thyme-leafed gratiola, herb of grace,[2] and Indian pennywort.[2] Bacopa monnieri is used in Ayurveda. In 2019, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warned manufacturers of dietary supplement products containing Bacopa monnieri against making illegal and unproven claims that the herb can treat various diseases.[3][4][5]

Bacopa monnieri in Hyderabad, India

Bacopa monnieri is a non-aromatic herb. The leaves of this plant are succulent, oblong, and 4–6 mm (0.16–0.24 in) thick. Leaves are oblanceolate and are arranged oppositely on the stem. The flowers are small, actinomorphic and white, with four to five petals. It can even grow in slightly brackish conditions. Propagation is often achieved through cuttings.[6]

Bacopa monnieri is one of the most widespread Bacopa species. It commonly grows in marshy areas throughout India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, China, Pakistan, Taiwan, Vietnam, tropical and southern Africa, on Madagascar, in Australia, in the Caribbean as well as in Middle and South America.[2] It is also found in Florida, Louisiana, Texas, and Hawaii.[1][7]
Research and regulation

Bacopa monnieri is used in Ayurvedic traditional medicine to improve memory and to treat various ailments.[8] Reviews of preliminary research found that Bacopa monnieri may improve cognition,[8][9] although the effect was measurable only after several weeks of use.[10]

In 2019, the FDA issued warning letters to manufacturers of dietary supplements containing Bacopa monnieri that advertised health claims for treating or preventing stomach disease, Alzheimer's disease, hypoglycemia, blood pressure, and anxiety were unproven and illegal. The FDA stated that Bacopa monnieri products have not been approved for these or any medical purposes.[3][4][5]
Adverse effects

The most commonly reported adverse effects of Bacopa monnieri in humans are nausea, increased intestinal motility, and gastrointestinal upset.[8]

The best characterized phytochemicals in Bacopa monnieri are dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins known as bacosides, with jujubogenin or pseudo-jujubogenin moieties as aglycone units.[11] Bacosides comprise a family of 12 known analogs.[12] Other saponins called bacopasides I–XII were identified.[13] The alkaloids brahmine, nicotine, and herpestine have been catalogued, along with D-mannitol, apigenin, hersaponin, monnierasides I–III, cucurbitacin and plantainoside B.[14][15][16]

Lansdown, R.V.; Knees, S.G.; Patzelt, A. (2013). "Bacopa monnieri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T164168A17722668. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T164168A17722668.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
"Bacopa monnieri". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2008-03-13.
"Health fraud scams: Unproven Alzheimer's disease products (Bacopa monnieri listed)". US Food and Drug Administration. 22 December 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
William A Correll, Jr. (5 February 2019). "FDA Warning Letter: Peak Nootropics LLC aka Advanced Nootropics". Office of Compliance, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Inspections, Compliance, Enforcement, and Criminal Investigations, US Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
William A Correll, Jr. (5 February 2019). "FDA Warning Letter: TEK Naturals". Office of Compliance, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Inspections, Compliance, Enforcement, and Criminal Investigations, US Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
Oudhia, Pankaj (2004). "Bramhi (Bacopa monnieri)". Society for Parthenium Management (SOPAM). Retrieved July 30, 2017.
"Plants of Louisiana". Retrieved 2021-07-23.
Aguiar, Sebastian; Borowski, Thomas (2013). "Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri". Rejuvenation Research. 16 (4): 313–326. doi:10.1089/rej.2013.1431. ISSN 1557-8577. PMC 3746283. PMID 23772955.
Kongkeaw, C; Dilokthornsakul, P; Thanarangsarit, P; Limpeanchob, N; Norman Scholfield, C (2014). "Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on cognitive effects of Bacopa monnieri extract". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 151 (1): 528–35. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.008. PMID 24252493.
Neale, Chris; Camfield, David; Reay, Jonathon; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew (5 February 2013). "Cognitive effects of two nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa benchmarked against modafinil: a review and comparison of effect sizes". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 75 (3): 728–737. doi:10.1111/bcp.12002. ISSN 0306-5251. PMC 3575939. PMID 23043278.
Sivaramakrishna, C; Rao, CV; Trimurtulu, G; Vanisree, M; Subbaraju, GV (2005). "Triterpenoid glycosides from Bacopa monnieri". Phytochemistry. 66 (23): 2719–2728. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.09.016. PMID 16293276.
Garai, S; Mahato, SB; Ohtani, K; Yamasaki, K (2009). "Dammarane triterpenoid saponins from Bacopa monnieri". Can J Chem. 87 (9): 1230–1234. doi:10.1139/V09-111.
Chakravarty, A.K; Garai, S.; Masuda, K; Nakane, T; Kawahara, N. (2003). "Bacopasides III–V: Three new triterpenoid glycosides from Bacopa monnieri". Chem Pharm Bull. 51 (2): 215–217. doi:10.1248/cpb.51.215. PMID 12576661.
Chatterji, N; Rastogi, RP; Dhar, ML (1965). "Chemical examination of Bacopa monniera Wettst: Part II—Isolation of chemical constituents". Ind J Chem. 3: 24–29.
Chakravarty, AK; Sarkar, T; Nakane, T; Kawahara, N; Masuda, K (2008). "New phenylethanoid glycosides from Bacopa monnieri". Chem Pharm Bull. 50 (12): 1616–1618. doi:10.1248/cpb.50.1616. PMID 12499603.
Bhandari, Pamita; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram; Kaul, Vijay K. (2007). "Cucurbitacins from Bacopa monnieri". Phytochemistry. 68 (9): 1248–1254. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.03.013. ISSN 0031-9422. PMID 17442350.

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