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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Aquifoliales

Familia: Cardiopteridaceae
Genera: CardiopterisCitronellaGonocaryumLeptaulusPseudobotrys

Cardiopteridaceae Blume (1847) nom. cons.

Type genus: Cardiopteris Wall. ex Royle Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts. 136. (1834)


Blume, C.L. von (1847) Rumphia, 3: 205.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2015. Cardiopteridaceae in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2015 Feb. 9. Reference page. still includes Dendrobangia Rusby, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 6: 19 (1896)
International Plant Names Index. 2015. Cardiopteridaceae. Published online. Accessed: Feb. 9 2015.
Kårehed, J. 2001. Multiple origin of the tropical forest tree family Icacinaceae. American Journal of Botany 88(12): 2259–2274. JSTOR DOI: 10.2307/3558388 Reference page.
Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page. 2015. Cardiopteridaceae. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 9 Feb. 2015.
Utteridge, T.M.A. & Schori, M. 2011. Updating Malesian Icacinaceae. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 63: 105–118. PDF Reference page.

Vernacular names
français: Cardioptéridacées
中文: 心翼果科

Cardiopteridaceae is a eudicot family of flowering plants. It consists of about 43 species of trees, shrubs, and woody vines, mostly of the tropics, but with a few in temperate regions.[2] It contains six genera, the largest of which is Citronella, with 21 species. The other genera are much smaller.[3]

Citronella mucronata is grown as an ornamental for its attractively shiny leaves and fragrant flowers.[4] A tea is made from the leaves of Citronella gongonha which is similar to yerba maté.[3]

The APG III classification (2009) places them in the order Aquifoliales. This order consists of Cardiopteridaceae, its sister family, Stemonuraceae, and the three monogeneric families Phyllonomaceae, Helwingiaceae, and Aquifoliaceae.[5]

The family name

The family Cardiopteridaceae was established by Carl Ludwig Blume in 1847 [6] when he described the species Cardiopteris moluccana.[7] Blume based his new family on Cardiopteris, a name that had previously been used by John Royle[8] and Nathaniel Wallich,[9] but not validly published.[10] In 1843, Justus Hasskarl had published the name Peripterygium quinqueloba for what is now Cardiopteris quinqueloba.[11] Blume indicated his awareness of Hasskarl's plant and included it as another species of Cardiopteris when he published Cardiopteris moluccana.[12]

A complex nomenclatural dispute ensued and lasted well into the twentieth century.[10][13] Because the basionym, Cardiopteris, was in question, the corresponding family name Cardiopteridaceae was in question as well. The ICBN finally conserved the name Cardiopteris against Peripterygium.

Prior to the seminal study by Kårehed in 2001, Cardiopteridaceae had consisted of only Cardiopteris. For example, Hermann Sleumer considered it to be monogeneric in his treatment of the family for Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien in 1942.[14] John Hutchinson did likewise in 1973.[15]

In 2001, Icacinaceae was shown to be polyphyletic.[16] It has since been divided into five segregate families: Cardiopteridaceae, Stemonuraceae, Pennantiaceae, Metteniusaceae, and Icacinaceae sensu stricto. Icacinaceae sensu stricto will eventually be divided further.[17]

In the 2001 study of Icacinaceae, Kårehed transferred Citronella, Gonocaryum, and Leptaulus from Icacinaceae to Cardiopteridaceae. He also provisionally placed Metteniusa, Dendrobangia, and Pseudobotrys there as well, until further studies could give some firm indication of their true relationships.[16]

In 2007, a molecular phylogenetic study showed that Metteniusa belongs to a group of asterids known as the lamiids.[18] The order Aquifoliales, which includes Cardiopteridaceae, belongs to another asterid group called campanulids.[19]

The inclusion of Pseudobotrys in Cardiopteridaceae remains doubtful. DNA sequences submitted to GenBank in 2009 indicate that Dendrobangia does not belong in Cardiopteridaceae and is more closely related to genera like Apodytes.

Cardiopteridaceae, sensu Kårehed, is rather diverse in spite of having only six genera. Because of the distinctive structure of Cardiopteris, some authors today, continue to put Cardiopteris in a family by itself.[20] The other five genera are then placed in Leptaulaceae, a family created by Philippe van Tieghem in 1897.[21] The monophyly of Leptaulaceae has never been tested by phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences.

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 161 (2): 105–121, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x, archived from the original on 2017-05-25, retrieved 2010-12-10
Vernon H. Heywood, Richard K. Brummitt, Ole Seberg, and Alastair Culham. Flowering Plant Families of the World. Firefly Books: Ontario, Canada. (2007). ISBN 978-1-55407-206-4.
David J. Mabberley. 2008. Mabberley's Plant-Book third edition (2008). Cambridge University Press: UK. ISBN 978-0-521-82071-4
Anthony Huxley, Mark Griffiths, and Margot Levy (1992). The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. The Macmillan Press,Limited: London. The Stockton Press: New York. ISBN 978-0-333-47494-5 (set).
Peter F. Stevens (2001 onwards). "Aquifoliales" At: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. At: Missouri Botanical Garden Website. (see External links below)
James L. Reveal. 2008 onward. "A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants." At: Home page of James L. Reveal and C. Rose Broome. (see External links below).
Carl Ludwig Blume. 1847. Rumphia 3:205.
John Forbes Royle. 1839. "Illustrations of the Botany and other branches of Natural History of the Himalayan Mountains":136. William H. Allen & Co.: London, England. (see External links below).
Nathaniel Wallich. Numerical list of dried specimens of plants in the Museum of the Honourable East India Company / which have been supplied by Dr. Wallich, superintendent of the botanic garden at Calcutta. number 8033. (publisher not named). London, 1828-1849. (see External links below).
Reinier C. Bakhuizen van den Brink and Cornelis G.G.J. van Steenis. 1962. "Cardiopteris or Peripterygium?" Taxon 11(1):28-29.
Justus Hasskarl. 1843. page 142. In: "Annotationes de plantis quibusdam Javanicis nonnullisque Japonicis, e Catalogo Horti Bogoriensis. Accedunt nonnullae novae species". Tijdschrift voor Natuurlijke Geschiedenis en Physiologie 10:115-150. (see External links below).
Hermann Otto Sleumer. 1972. "Cardiopteridaceae" In: Flora Malesiana, series 1 7(1):93-96.
Arthur A. Bullock. 1957. "Nomenclatural Notes.-II. Cardiopteridaceae". Kew Bulletin 12(2):356. (see External links below).
Hermann Sleumer. 1942. "Icacinaceae" pages 322-396. In: H.G. Adolf Engler and Karl A.E. Prantl, with Hermann Harms and Johannes Mattfeld (editors). Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien volume 20b. Duncker and Humblot: Berlin, Germany. 1960 reprint of 1942 publication.
John Hutchinson The Families of Flowering Plants 3rd edition. 1973. Oxford University Press.
Jesper Kårehed. 2001. "Multiple origin of the tropical forest tree family Icacinaceae". American Journal of Botany 88(12):2259-2274.
Frederic Lens, Jesper Kårehed, Pieter Baas, Steven Jansen, David Rabaey, Suzy Huysmans, Thomas Hamann and Erik Smets. 2008. "The wood anatomy of the polyphyletic Icacinaceae s.l., and their relationships within asterids". Taxon 57(2):525-552.
Favio González, Julio Betancur, Olivier Maurin, John V. Freudenstein, and Mark W. Chase. 2007. "Metteniusaceae, an early-diverging family in the lamiid clade". Taxon 56(3):795-800.
Richard C. Winkworth, Johannes Lundberg, and Michael J. Donoghue. 2008. "Toward a resolution of Campanulid phylogeny, with special reference to the placement of Dipsacales". Taxon 57(1):53-65.
Timothy M.A. Utteridge and Richard K. Brummitt. 2007. "Leptaulaceae" pages 191-192. In: Vernon H. Heywood, Richard K. Brummitt, Ole Seberg, and Alastair Culham. Flowering Plant Families of the World. Firefly Books: Ontario, Canada. (2007). ISBN 978-1-55407-206-4.
Philippe E.L. van Tieghem. 1897. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences 124:842.

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