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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Caryophyllales

Familia: Aizoaceae
Subfamilia: Ruschioideae
Tribus: Ruschieae
Genus: Conophytum
Species: C. achabense – C. acutum – C. albiflorum – C. angelicae – C. antonii – C. armianum – C. arthurolfago – C. auriflorum – C. bachelorum – C. bicarinatum – C. bilobum – C. blandum – C. bolusiae – C. breve – C. brunneum – C. bruynsii – C. burgeri – C. calculus – C. calitzdorpense – C. candidum – C. caroli – C. carpianum – C. chauviniae – C. chrisocruxum – C. chrisolum – C. comptonii – C. concavum – C. concordans – C. connatum – C. crateriforme – C. cubicum – C. depressum – C. devium – C. ectypum – C. ernstii – C. fibuliforme – C. ficiforme – C. flavum – C. francoiseae – C. fraternum – C. friedrichiae – C. frutescens – C. fulleri – C. globosum – C. halenbergense – C. hammeri – C. hermarium – C. herreanthus – C. hians – C. hyracis – C. inornatum – C. irmae – C. jarmilae – C. joubertii – C. jucundum – C. khamiesbergense – C. klinghardtense – C. kubusanum – C. limpidum – C. lithopsoides – C. loeschianum – C. longibracteatum – C. longum – C. luckhoffii – C. lydiae – C. marginatum – C. marnierianum – C. maughanii – C. meyeri – C. minimum – C. minusculum – C. minutum – C. mirabile – C. obcordellum – C. obscurum – C. pageae – C. pellucidum – C. phoeniceum – C. piluliforme – C. pium – C. praesectum – C. pubescens – C. pubicalyx – C. quaesitum – C. ratum – C. reconditum – C. regale – C. ricardianum – C. roodiae – C. rugosum – C. saxetanum – C. schlechteri – C. semivestitum – C. smalearum – C. smorenskaduense – C. stephanii – C. stevens-jonesianum – C. subfenestratum – C. subterraneum – C. swanepoelianum – C. tantillum – C. taylorianum – C. tomasii – C. truncatum – C. turrigerum – C. uviforme – C. vanheerdii – C. velutinum – C. verrucosum – C. violaciflorum – C. wettsteinii – C. youngii
Source(s) of checklist:

Hassler, M. 2018. Conophytum. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Jul. 04. Reference page.


Conophytum N.E.Br., Gard. Chron. ser. 3, 71: 198. (1922)

Type species: Conophytum minutum (Haw.) N.E.Br. , Gard. Chron. ser. 3, 71: 198. (1922); Lectotypus designated by Phillips, Gen. S. African Fl. Pl. ed. 2. 301 (29 Nov 1951).

Primary references

Brown, N.E. 1922. Gardeners' Chronicle Ser. 3 71: 198.

Additional references

Powell, R.F., Boatwright, J.S., Klak, C. & Magee, A.R. 2017. Inclusion of Ihlenfeldtia and Odontophorus in Cheiridopsis (Ruschioideae: Aizoaceae) and insights into generic and subgeneric circumscription in the Conophytum clade. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 184(4): 457-484. DOI: 10.1093/botlinnean/box037 Full text PDF from ResearchGate Reference page.


Hassler, M. 2018. Conophytum. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Jul. 04. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Conophytum. Published online. Accessed: Jul. 04 2018.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2018. Conophytum in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Jul. 04. Reference page. 2018. Conophytum. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Jul. 04.
Global Biodiversity Information Facility. 2019. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset. Taxon: Conophytum.

Vernacular names
English: Sphaeroids, Conos, Cone Plants, Dumplings, Button Plants
magyar: Álkavics

Conophytum is a genus of South African and Namibian succulent plants that belong to the family Aizoaceae. The name is derived from the Latin conus (cone) and Greek phytum (plant). The plants are also known as knopies (buttons), waterblasies (water blisters), sphaeroids, conos, cone plants, dumplings, or button plants.


The genus is sometimes wrongly referred to as Conophyton, the name that Adrian Hardy Haworth suggested in 1821: "If this section proves to be a genus, the name of Conophyton would be apt". However, this was too tentative to establish a validly published generic name and also, Haworth himself neither adopted it nor accepted the genus. The genus was neither recognised nor validly named until the name Conophytum was published 101 years later.[1]

Conophytum species are dwarf cushion-forming or single-bodied succulents. Members of the genus are tiny plants with succulent leaves ranging from 1/4" to 2" in length. These leaves are partially or entirely fused along their centers. Each leaf pair (together referred to as a body) ranges in shape from "bilobed" to spherical to ovoid to tubular to conical. Some species have epidermal windows on the top of their leaves. To the naked eye the epidermis ranges from very smooth to slightly rough to hairy, depending on the microscopic epidermal cell shape and structure. In their normal, natural state each stem has only one pair of leaves at a time though one plant may have dozens of stems and thus dozens of leaf pairs. When very heavy rains come to their native habitat they may grow luxuriantly and develop two leaf pairs per stem simultaneously; this is called "stacking up" of the leaves.

Several species of Conophytum are found in cultivation. In temperate regions they are best grown in a specialist medium with the protection of glass, as they do not tolerate temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F).

Recently several species have been threatened with extinction due to mining and poaching from the wild for the black market. These plants are mainly sold to collectors in Asian countries, where there has been a high demand for them.[2]

This is a list of species in the genus Conophytum.[3]

Conophytum achabense
Conophytum acutum
Conophytum albiflorum
Conophytum angelicae
Conophytum armianum
Conophytum arthurolfago
Conophytum auriflorum
Conophytum bachelorum
Conophytum bicarinatum
Conophytum bilobum
Conophytum blandum
Conophytum bolusiae
Conophytum breve
Conophytum brunneum
Conophytum bruynsii
Conophytum burgeri
Conophytum calculus
Conophytum caroli
Conophytum carpianum
Conophytum chauviniae
Conophytum chrisocruxum
Conophytum chrisolum
Conophytum comptonii
Conophytum concavum
Conophytum concordans
Conophytum cubicum
Conophytum depressum
Conophytum devium
Conophytum ectypum
Conophytum ernstii
Conophytum ficiforme
Conophytum flavum
Conophytum francoiseae
Conophytum fraternum
Conophytum friedrichiae
Conophytum frutescens
Conophytum fulleri
Conophytum globosum
Conophytum halenbergense
Conophytum hammeri
Conophytum hermarium
Conophytum herreanthus
Conophytum hians
Conophytum irmae
Conophytum jarmilae
Conophytum joubertii
Conophytum jucundum
Conophytum khamiesbergense
Conophytum klinghardtense
Conophytum kubusanum
Conophytum limpidum
Conophytum lithopsoides
Conophytum loeschianum
Conophytum longibracteatum
Conophytum longum
Conophytum luckhoffii
Conophytum lydiae
Conophytum marginatum
Conophytum maughanii
Conophytum meyeri
Conophytum minimum
Conophytum minusculum
Conophytum minutum
Conophytum mirabile
Conophytum obcordellum
Conophytum obscurum
Conophytum pageae
Conophytum pellucidum
Conophytum phoeniceum
Conophytum piluliforme
Conophytum praesectum
Conophytum pubescens
Conophytum pubicalyx
Conophytum quaesitum
Conophytum ratum
Conophytum reconditum
Conophytum regale
Conophytum ricardianum
Conophytum roodiae
Conophytum rugosum
Conophytum saxetanum
Conophytum schlechteri
Conophytum semivestitum
Conophytum smorenskaduense
Conophytum stephanii
Conophytum stevens-jonesianum
Conophytum subfenestratum
Conophytum subterraneum
Conophytum swanepoelianum
Conophytum tantillum
Conophytum taylorianum
Conophytum tomasi
Conophytum truncatum
Conophytum turrigerum
Conophytum uviforme
Conophytum vanheerdei
Conophytum velutinum
Conophytum verrucosum
Conophytum violaciflorum
Conophytum wettsteinii

Conophytum seitubum

McNeill, J. et al (eds) "International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code). Regnum Vegetabile" 146. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag 2006. KG. ISBN 3-906166-48-1
"Why the Black Market for Cacti and Succulents is Booming".
Hammer, S.(2002) Dumpling and His Wife: New Views of the Genus Conophytum EAE Creative Colour Ltd. ISBN 0-9539326-1-3

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