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Consolida regalis

Consolida regalis (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Ordo: Ranunculales

Familia: Ranunculaceae
Subfamilia: Ranunculoideae
Tribus: Delphinieae
Genus: Consolida
Sectio: C. sect. Consolida
Species: Consolida regalis
Varietates: C. r. var. glanduligera – C. r. var. mollis – C. r. var. paniculata – C. r. var. regalis – C. r. var. sparsiflora

Consolida regalis Gray, (1821).

Delphinium consolida L., Sp. Pl. 1: 530–531 (1753).
Ceratosanthus consolida (L.) Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv., 30 (1866).
Delphidium consolida (L.) Raf., Med. Fl., 2: 216 (1830).
Delphinium divaricatum Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyr. : 223, 1867, nom. superfl. & nom. illeg. non Ledeb. (1831).
Delphinium segetum Lam., Fl. Fr., 3: 325 (1779), nom. superfl.
Delphinium versicolor Salisb., Prodr. : 375 (1796), nom. superfl.


Gray, S.F. 1821. A Natural Arrangement of British Plants 2: 711.

Vernacular names
azərbaycanca: Əkin mahmızçiçəyi, Delphinium consolida, Tarla mahmızçiçəyi
беларуская: Рагулькі палявыя
български: обикновена ралица
čeština: ostrožka stračka
Cymraeg: Ysbardun y Marchog
Deutsch: Gewöhnlicher Feldrittersporn, Acker-Rittersporn, Feldrittersporn
English: rocket larkspur, forking larkspur, field larkspur
español: consuelda real, espuela de caballero
suomi: Rikkakukonkannus
français: Dauphinelle des champs
hornjoserbsce: Pólny wotrožnik, Rosaca broda, Busšinki, Kaplenki, Módra broda, Kapłank
magyar: Mezei szarkaláb
lietuvių: Dirvinis raguolis, Dirvinis pentinis
latviešu: Tīruma zilausis, Forking larkspur, Tīrumu zilausis
norsk bokmål: Åkerridderspore, Levkøyridderspore
Nederlands: Wilde Ridderspoor
norsk nynorsk: Åkerriddarspore
polski: Ostróżeczka polna
Runa Simi: Pichiw waranqaysu
русский: Сокирки полевые, Живокость полевая, Рогатый василёк, Живокость посевная, Косарики
slovenčina: ostrôžka poľná
shqip: Gjuhënusja e formuar
српски / srpski: Жаворњак / Žavornjak
svenska: Riddarsporre
українська: Сокирки польові

Consolida regalis, known as forking larkspur, rocket-larkspur, and field larkspur, is an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the genus Consolida of the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae).[1][2]


Consolida regalis is native to:[2]

Western Asia: Turkey, Georgia, western Siberia.
Northern Europe — Denmark; Finland; Sweden; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania.
Middle Europe — Austria; Belgium; Czech Republic; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Slovakia; Switzerland.
East Europe — Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Moldova; Russian Federation—European part; Ukraine.
Southeastern Europe — Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Greece; Italy; Macedonia; Montenegro; Romania; Serbia; Slovenia.
Southwestern Europe — France.


The plant is found growing on sandy or chalky soils. It is present at an altitude of 0–1,200 metres (0–3,937 ft) above sea level.

It grows in dry weedy places and roadside ditches, and in cereal crop fields. The plant has become quite rare in central and southern Europe because of the increased use of herbicides and intensive soil cultivation.

This species is grown as an ornamental plant.

Consolida regalis reaches on average 30–80 centimetres (12–31 in) in height. The stem is erect, hairy and very branched at the top. The roots grow into the soil up to a depth of 50 centimetres (20 in), so the plant can survive long periods of drought. The leaves are alternately arranged.

The inflorescence is a cluster with five to eight hermaphrodite flowers. The flowers are dark blue or purple with five sepals. The upper sepal is prolonged in a spur of 15–18 millimetres (0.59–0.71 in) long, pointing toward the back. There are eight to ten stamens. The flowering period extends from May through August.

The flowers are pollinated by hymenoptera and lepidoptera. The seeds ripen from June through September. All plant parts are poisonous in large doses, especially the seeds, that contain up to 1.4% of alkaloids.
Chemical constituents

The alkaloids which have been isolated from Consolida regalis include[3]












Plant of Consolida regalis

Flowers of Consolida regalis

Close-up on a flower of Consolida regalis

Flowers of Consolida regalis'

Flowers of Consolida regalis'

USDA, NRCS (2010). "Plants Profile for Consolida regalis (royal knight's-spur)". The PLANTS Database (, 10 April 2010). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA. Retrieved 2010-04-10.
"Consolida regalis". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2013-01-10.

Yin, Tianpeng; Cai, Le; Ding, Zhongtao (2020). "A systematic review on the chemical constituents of the genus Consolida (Ranunculaceae) and their biological activities". RSC Advances. 10 (58): 35072–35089. Bibcode:2020RSCAd..1035072Y. doi:10.1039/D0RA06811J.

Pignatti S. - Flora d'Italia - Edagricole – 1982 - Vol. I, pag. 291
Consolida regalis

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