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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids II
Ordo: Myrtales

Familia: Myrtaceae
Subfamilia: Myrtoideae
Tribus: Chamelaucieae
Genus: Darwinia
Species: D. acerosa – D. apiculata – D. biflora – D. briggsiae – D. camptostylis – D. capitellata – D. carnea – D. chapmaniana – D. citriodora – D. collina – D. diminuta – D. diosmoides – D. divisa – D. fascicularis – D. ferricola – D. foetida – D. glaucophylla – D. grandiflora – D. helichrysoides – D. hortiorum – D. hypericifolia – D. leiostyla – D. leptantha – D. luehmannii – D. macrostegia – D. masonii – D. meeboldii – D. micropetala – D. neildiana – D. nubigena – D. oederoides – D. oldfieldii – D. oxylepis – D. pauciflora – D. peduncularis – D. pimelioides – D. pinifolia – D. polycephala – D. polychroma – D. procera – D. purpurea – D. repens – D. salina – D. sanguinea – D. speciosa – D. squarrosa – D. taxifolia – D. thymoides – D. vestita – D. virescens – D. whicherensis – D. wittwerorum

Darwinia Rudge (1816)

Type species: D. fascicularis Rudge


Darwinia Raf. = Sesbania Scop.
Darwinia Dennst. = Litsea Lam.

Primary references

Rudge, E. 1816. A Description of several new Species of Plants from New Holland. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 11: 299, t. 22.


Darwinia in: Australian Plant Census (APC) 2018. IBIS database, Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research, Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. Accessed: 2018 March 14.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Darwinia. Published online. Accessed: March 14 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Darwinia in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 March 14. 2018. Darwinia. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 March 14.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2013. Darwinia in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Mar 05. Reference page.

Darwinia, sometimes commonly known as mountain bells or simply bells, is a genus of about 70 species of evergreen shrubs in the family Myrtaceae, endemic to southeastern and southwestern Australia. The majority are native to southern Western Australia, but a few species occur in South Australia, New South Wales and Victoria. The genus was named in honour of Erasmus Darwin, grandfather of Charles Darwin by Edward Rudge in 1816. Most darwinias grow to a height of between 0.2 and 3 m (0.7 and 10 ft), and many are prostrate shrubs. Most have small, simple leaves and the flowers are often grouped together, each flower with five red, white or greenish petals and ten stamens. In many species, the flowers are surrounded by large, colourful bracts, giving rise to their common names.

1 Description
2 Taxonomy and naming
3 Distribution
4 Ecology
5 Conservation
6 Use in horticulture
7 List of species
7.1 Gallery
8 References
9 External links


Darwinia species are prostrate to erect, woody shrubs growing to a height of 0.2 and 3 m (0.7 and 10 ft). The leaves are usually arranged in opposite pairs and are simple, small, needle-like to oval and contain essential oils. The flowers are arranged near the ends of the branches and are usually surrounded by leaf-like green bracts and larger, usually coloured bracteoles. The flowers have five, usually very small sepals and 5 petals which enclose the stamens and may be white or coloured. There are 10 stamens which alternate with 10 staminodes, all of which are enclosed by the petals so that they are not visible in an intact flower. The style projects beyond the flower and has a groups of hairs near the stigma. The fruit is a non-fleshy nut which retains the (usually one) seed at maturity.[2][3][4]
Taxonomy and naming

The genus Darwinia was first formally described by Edward Rudge in 1816 and the type species is Darwinia fascicularis. Rudge published his description in Transactions of the Linnean Society of London.[5] There are about 70 species but many have not been formally described. George Bentham undertook a review of the genus in 1865 when he described 23 species in Flora Australiensis[6] (although the species he named Darwinia verticordina is now known as Verticordia verticordina).[7] The genus was named for Erasmus Darwin.[8]

About 30 species of Darwinia have been discovered but not yet formally described. They have been given informal names such as Darwinia sp. Bindoon and Darwinia sp. Canna.[9]

Darwinias are found in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia. Sixty of the roughly 70 species occur in Western Australia and 11 grow naturally in New South Wales.[3][10]

Land clearing and grazing practices have reduced the areas where Darwinia species grow naturally. Recovery is hindered by drought, changed fire regimes and susceptibility of some species, especially Gillam's Bell (Darwinia oxylepis) to infection by the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi.[11]

Some species in the genus Darwinia are threatened with extinction, being listed as Endangered or Vulnerable on the Australian National List of Threatened Flora. These include the Yellow Mountain Bell (Darwinia collina), Gillam's Bell (Darwinia oxylepis) and Abba Bell (Darwinia whicherensis).[12]
Use in horticulture

Darwinias are difficult to propagate from seed but can be cultivated from cuttings.[13]
List of species

The following is a list of Darwinia species accepted by the Australian Plant Census as at December 2020:[14]

Darwinia acerosa – fine-leaved darwinia (endangered)
Darwinia apiculata – scarp darwinia (endangered)
Darwinia biflora (vulnerable)
Darwinia briggsiae
Darwinia camptostylis - clustered darwinia
Darwinia capitellata
Darwinia carnea – Mogumber bell, Narrogin bell (endangered)
Darwinia chapmaniana – Chapman's bell or Eganu bell (endangered)
Darwinia citriodora – lemon-scented myrtle
Darwinia collina – yellow mountain bell (endangered)
Darwinia diminuta
Darwinia diosmoides
Darwinia divisa - (presumed extinct)[15]
Darwinia fascicularis
Darwinia ferricola – Scott River darwinia (endangered)
Darwinia foetida – Muchea bell
Darwinia glaucophylla (threatened)
Darwinia grandiflora
Darwinia helichrysoides
Darwinia hortiorum
Darwinia hypericifolia
Darwinia leiostyla
Darwinia leptantha
Darwinia luehmannii
Darwinia macrostegia – Mondurup bell (vulnerable)
Darwinia masonii – Mason's darwinia (vulnerable)
Darwinia meeboldii – Cranbrook bell (vulnerable)
Darwinia micropetala – small darwinia
Darwinia neildiana – fringed bell
Darwinia nubigena – success bell (vulnerable)
Darwinia oederoides
Darwinia oldfieldii
Darwinia oxylepis – Gillam's bell (endangered)
Darwinia pauciflora
Darwinia peduncularis (vulnerable)
Darwinia pimelioides
Darwinia pinifolia
Darwinia polycephala
Darwinia polychroma – harlequin bell (endangered)
Darwinia procera
Darwinia purpurea – rose darwinia
Darwinia salina
Darwinia sanguinea
Darwinia speciosa
Darwinia squarrosa – pink mountain bell (vulnerable)
Darwinia taxifolia
Darwinia terricola
Darwinia thymoides
Darwinia vestita – pom-pom darwinia
Darwinia virescens – Murchison darwinia
Darwinia whicherensis – Abba bell (endangered)
Darwinia wittwerorum – Wittwer's mountain bell (endangered)


"Darwinia". Australian Plant Census. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
"Darwinia". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife.
Wilson, Peter G. "Genus Darwinia". Royal Botanic Garden Sydney: PlantNET. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
"Darwinia Rudge". eBotany. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
"Darwinia". APNI. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
Bentham, George (1865). Flora Australiensis. London: Lovell Reeve and Co. pp. 6–15. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
"Darwinia verticordina". APNI. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
"Darwinia citriodora". Australian National Botanic Garden. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
"Darwinia Rudge". Western Australian Herbarium. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
Keighery, G.J. (2009). "Six new and rare species of Darwinia (Myrtaceae) from Western Australia" (PDF). Nuytsia. 19 (1): 37–52. Retrieved 2009-07-24.
"Conservation Advice Darwinia oxylepis" (PDF). Australian Government Department of the Environment. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
"EPBC Act List of Threatened Flora". Australian Government Department of the Environment. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
"Darwinia meeboldii". Australian Native Plants Society (Australia). Retrieved 8 September 2016.
"Darwinia". Australian Plant Census. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
Gibson, Neil (2016). "Western Australian plant taxa not collected for more than 50 years". Nuytsia. 27: 151–152.

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