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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Dilleniales

Familia: Dilleniaceae
Genera: AcrotremaCuratellaDavillaDidesmandraDilleniaDoliocarpusHibbertiaNeodilleniaPinzonaSchumacheriaTetracera

Dilleniaceae Salisb., 1807, nom. cons.

Type genus: Dillenia L.


Hibbertiaceae J.Agardh
Delimaceae Mart.
Soramiaceae Martinov

Primary references

Salisbury, R.A. 1805(–1808). The Paradisus Londinensis: or coloured figures of plants cultivated in the vicinity of the metropolis. Vol. 1–2. BHL Reference page. 2(1): ad t. 73.

Additional references

Horn, J.W. 2009. Phylogenetics of Dilleniaceae using sequence data from four plastid loci (rbcL, infA, rps4, rpl16 intron). International Journal of Plant Sciences 170(6): 794–813. DOI: 10.1086/599239 ResearchGate Reference page.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Dilleniaceae in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Mar. 7. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2020. Dilleniaceae. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2020. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Mar. 7. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Dilleniaceae. Published online. Accessed: Mar. 7 2020. 2020. Dilleniaceae. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Mar. 7.

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Rosenapfelgewächse
magyar: Dilléniafélék
svenska: Hibbertiaväxter
中文: 五桠果科

Dilleniaceae is a family of flowering plants with 11 genera and about 430 known species.[2] Such a family has been universally recognized by taxonomists. It is known to gardeners for the genus Hibbertia, which contains many commercially valuable garden species.

1 Description and distribution
2 Taxonomy and phylogeny
3 Evolution
4 References
5 External links

Description and distribution

The family is found in the tropics and subtropics plus all of Australia. Most of the members in it are woody plants - lianas or trees such as Dillenia - but herbaceous species such as Hibbertia are also present in Dilleniaceae. The leaves of the plants in the family are wide and well-developed, but in certain species of Hibbertia they are strongly modified. The flowers are mainly showy and colorful with visible reproductive components. Buzz pollination is common in the group.[3] Fruits of some species, such as Dillenia indica (elephant apple), are edible.
Taxonomy and phylogeny
Dillenia suffruticosa

The position of the family in the phylogenetic tree and its classification among the other eudicots is uncertain.[4] Some studies suggested that Dilleniaceae may be sister to Rhabdodendraceae which is a clade that was thought to be sister to all the rest Caryophyllales. The caryophyllid Rhabdodendron and the members in the family with the questionable placement in fact share some morphological characteristics but it was found that Rhabdodendraceae is actually sister only to the core members of its order.

Another possible situation places Dilleniaceae as an ancient group, sister to the superrosidae clade (the family shares some common morphology with Vitales) but this is not absolutely proven.

The APG II system, of 2003 (unchanged from the APG system, of 1998), also recognizes this family, unplaced as to order, assigned to the clade core eudicots.

APG II debates either including it in order Caryophyllales or reinstating the order Dilleniales for just this one family, but decides to leave it unplaced.

The family is remarkable because of its variability of morphological characteristics that now are much steadier in other Angiosperm groups. Thus, Dilleniaceae may be an ancient clade that expresses some phylogenetic relation between the higher Eudicots and the rather more primitive groups.[5] It is estimated that the clade diverged around 115 million years ago in Mid Cretaceous but the crown group was formed much later - only 52 million years before the present.[6]

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x.
Christenhusz, M. J. M.; Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
Endress, Peter K. (1997). "Relationships between floral organization, architecture, and pollination mode in Dillenia (Dilleniaceae)". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 206 (1–4): 99–118. doi:10.1007/BF00987943. S2CID 23394517.
Moore, M. J.; Soltis, P. S.; Bell, C. D.; Burleigh, J. G.; Soltis, D. E. (2010). "Phylogenetic analysis of 83 plastid genes further resolves the early diversification of eudicots". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (10): 4623–4628. doi:10.1073/pnas.0907801107. PMC 2842043. PMID 20176954.
Horn, James W. (2009). "Phylogenetics of Dilleniaceae Using Sequence Data from Four Plastid Loci (rbcL, infA, rps4, rpl16 Intron)". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 170 (6): 794–813. doi:10.1086/599239. S2CID 84857528.

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