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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids II
Ordo: Sapindales

Familia: Sapindaceae
Subfamilia: Hippocastanoideae
Tribus: Acereae
Genus: Dipteronia
Species: D. dyeriana – D. sinensis

Paleospecies: †D. brownii

Dipteronia Oliver

Feng, Y., Comes, H.P., Zhou, X.P. & Qiu, Y.X. 2019. Phylogenomics recovers monophyly and early Tertiary diversification of Dipteronia (Sapindaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 130: 9-17. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2018.09.012 Reference page. epublished 2018
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Dipteronia in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 08-Apr-12.

Dipteronia is a genus with two living and one extinct species in the soapberry family Sapindaceae. The living species are native to central and southern China, while the fossil species is found in Middle Paleocene to Early Oligocene sediments of North America and China.


Older classifications segregated the maples and Dipteronia into the family Aceraceae, however work by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG I onward) and related investigations[1] lead to the subsuming of Acereae into Sapindaceae as the tribe Acereae. Dipteronia is considered to be the sister genus to Acer.[2]

They are deciduous flowering shrubs or small trees, reaching 10–15 m (33–49 ft) tall. The leaf arrangement is opposite and pinnate with between 7 - 15 leaflets to each leaf.[2] The inflorescences are paniculate, terminal or axillary. The flowers have five sepals and petals; staminate flowers have eight stamens, and bisexual flowers have a two-celled ovary. The fruit is a rounded samara containing two compressed nutlets, flat, encircled by a broad wing which turns from light green to red with ripening.

The name Dipteronia stems from the Greek "di-" (two, both) & "pteron" (wings), from the winged fruits with wings on both sides of the seed.

There are only two living species, Dipteronia sinensis and Dipteronia dyeriana; both are endemic to mainland China.[3] Dipteronia dyeriana is listed by the IUCN as being a "Red List" threatened species, and known from only five isolated populations in south-eastern Yunnan Province.[3]
Fossil record

The extinct species Dipteronia brownii is known from Middle Paleocene to Early Oligocene sites across western North America. The oldest fossils are found in the Fort Union Formation of Wyoming and the Tsagayan Formation of Northeastern coastal Russia.[4] In the Early Eocene the species expanded northward to the Eocene Okanagan Highlands sites such as the Klondike Mountain Formation of Washington, Driftwood Shales and Tranquille Formation of British Columbia as well as into the John Day Formation of central Oregon. During the middle to late Eocene the species spread east and south to the Ruby Basin Flora of Montana and the Florissant Formation of Colorado, while the last occurrences are in the Early Oligocene, Rupelian[5] of the Bridge Creek Flora in the upper John Day Formation.[2] Concurrently, several Dipteronia brownii fruits have also been collected from Rupelian 32 ± 1 million years ago lacustrine mudstones in Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture southwestern China.[6]

Harrington, M.G.; Edwards, K.J.; Johnson, S.A.; Chase, M.W.; Gadek, P.A. (2005). "Phylogenetic inference in Sapindaceae sensu lato using plastid matK and rbcL DNA sequences". Systematic Botany. 30 (2): 366–382. doi:10.1600/0363644054223549.
McClain, A. M.; Manchester, S. R. (2001). "Dipteronia (Sapindaceae) from the Tertiary of North America and implications for the phytogeographic history of the Aceroideae". American Journal of Botany. 88 (7): 1316–25. doi:10.2307/3558343. JSTOR 3558343. PMID 11454632.
Qiu, Ying-Xiong; Luo, Yu-Ping; Comes, Hans Peter; Ouyang, Zhi-Qin; Fu, Cheng-Xin (2007). "Population genetic diversity and structure of Dipteronia dyerana (Sapindaceae), a rare endemic from Yunnan Province, China, with implications for conservation". Taxon. 56 (2): 427–437. doi:10.1002/tax.562014.
Manchester, S. R.; Chen, Z.D.; Lu, A. M.; Uemura, K. (2009). "Eastern Asian endemic seed plant genera and their paleogeographic history throughout the Northern Hemisphere". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 47 (1): 1–42.
Manchester, S.R.; McIntosh, W.C. (2007). "Late Eocene silicified fruits and seeds from the John Day Formation near Post, Oregon". PaleoBios. 27 (1): 7–17.

Ding, W. N.; Huang, J.; Su, T.; Xing, Y. W.; Zhou, Z. K. (2018). "An early Oligocene occurrence of the palaeoendemic genus Dipteronia (Sapindaceae) from Southwest China" (PDF). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 249: 16–23. doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2017.11.002..


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