Fine Art

D. palmeri

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Cladus: Commelinids
Ordo: Poales

Familia: Poaceae
Subfamilia: Chloridoideae
Tribus: Cynodonteae
Subtribus: Monanthochloinae
Genus: Distichlis
Species: Distichlis palmeri

Distichlis palmeri (Vasey) Fassett ex I.M.Johnst., 1924

Uniola palmeri Vasey, Gard. & Forest 2: 401 (1889).

Native distribution areas:

Continental: Northern America
Regional: Mexico
Mexico Northwest

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Fassett, N.C., 1924. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 4, 12: 984

Additional references

Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2022. Distichlis palmeri in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2022 September 01. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2022. Distichlis palmeri. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2022. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2022 September 01. Reference page. 2022. Distichlis palmeri. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 01 September 2022.
International Plant Names Index. 2022. Distichlis palmeri. Published online. Accessed: September 01 2022.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Distichlis palmeri in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Vernacular names

Distichlis palmeri is an obligate emergent (it has aerenchyma) perennial rhizomatous dioecious halophytic C4 grass in the Poacea (Gramineae) family. D. palmeri is a saltwater marsh grass endemic to the tidal marshes of the northern part of The Gulf of California and Islands section of the Sonoran Desert.[1][2][3][4] D. palmeri is not drought tolerant. It does withstand surface drying between supra tidal events because roots extend downward to more than 1 meter (3 feet) where coastal substrata is still moist.

Culms (stalks) are generally rigid and upright to about 60 cm (2 feet) and have short internodes. Longer culms become recumbent (lay down) developing young vertical culms from the nodes. These young culms may root. Acicular to linear leaves are upright and positioned alternate along the culm at nodes. Leaves excrete salts through specialized salt glands that are a component of D. palmeri leaf anatomy.[5][6] These excreted surface salts are wicked away by breezes. Insects of the grasshopper family visit the plant. When D. palmer is maintained in a greenhouse, it is susceptible to aphid infestation.

Anemophilous flowers emerge late winter. At anthesis, males liberate light chartreuse colored pollen in breezes. Female flowers are panicles of alternate spikelets that present lavender colored styles and stigmas.[1][2][3] Kernels (seeds) are mature in early spring.[3] Each panicle produces 20-30 mature caryopses.[3] Kernels are similar to those of farro in color and size. Kernels of Distichlis palmeri have an indigenous history as a wild harvest grain (Nipa) consumed by the Cocopah. Nipa grain has size, nutritional value and flavor qualities similar to other cropped grains.[2][3][7][8][9]

In the last four decades, Nipa grain production through saline agriculture (agriculture that uses saline resources to farm halophytic cash crops) of D. palmeri has been the subject of domestication studies.[2][3][4][10][9][11][12][13] In addition to research studies working to domesticate D. palmeri, D. palmeri has been used to manage farm drainage and proposed as a constructive use plant in remediation of saline and biosaline wastewaters and land.[14][15][16]

Distichlis palmeri has character to thrive within affects of our changing climate; in open hot full sun on saline irrigation in subtropic zones, hence, it can be cropped along warming and rising coastlines.[2][3][10] and is an active candidate for (bio)saline agriculture and cash crop development of Nipa grain, making it a prospective new crop for the 21st century.[6][17][18][19][20]

obson. "Distichlis palmeri". Cd. Obregon en Sonora, Fierro por la 200!!! (in Spanish). Retrieved 2 February 2022.
Bresdin, Cylphine; Glenn, Edward P. (2016), Khan, M. Ajmal; Boër, Benno; Ȫzturk, Münir; Clüsener-Godt, Miguel (eds.), "Distichlis palmeri: An Endemic Grass in the Coastal Sabkhas of the Northern Gulf of California and a Potential New Grain Crop for Saltwater Agriculture", Sabkha Ecosystems, Cham: Springer International Publishing, vol. 48, pp. 389–396, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-27093-7_21, ISBN 978-3-319-27091-3, retrieved 2 February 2022
"Distichlis palmeri: Perennial Grain Yields under Saline Paddy-style Cultivation of Grains on Seawater : Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences". Retrieved 2 February 2022.
Pearlstein, S. L.; Felger, R. S.; Glenn, E. P.; Harrington, J.; Al-Ghanem, K. A.; Nelson, S. G. (1 July 2012). "Nipa (Distichlis palmeri): A perennial grain crop for saltwater irrigation". Journal of Arid Environments. 82: 60–70. doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2012.02.009. ISSN 0140-1963.
Flowers, T.J. (1985). "Physiology of Halophytes". Plant and Soil. 89: 41–56.
Glenn, Edward P.; Brown, J. Jed; Blumwald, Eduardo (1999). "Salt Tolerance and Crop Potential of Halophytes". Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 18 (2): 227–255. doi:10.1080/07352689991309207. ISSN 0735-2689.
Yensen, S. B.; Weber, C. W. (1986). "Composition of Disfichlis palmeri grain, a saltgrass". Journal of Food Science. 51 (4): 1089–1090. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1986.tb11246.x. ISSN 0022-1147.
Glenn, Edward P.; Anday, Tekie; Chaturvedi, Rahul; Martinez-Garcia, Rafael; Pearlstein, Susanna; Soliz, Deserie; Nelson, Stephen G.; Felger, Richard S. (2013). "Three halophytes for saline-water agriculture: An oilseed, a forage and a grain crop". Environmental and Experimental Botany. 92: 110–121. doi:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2012.05.002.
Edward P. Glenn, J. Jed Brown and James W. O'Leary (August 1998). "Irrigating Crops with Seawatero" (PDF). Scientific American: 76–81.
US 4767887, Yensen, Nicholas P., "Yensen 1a", published 1988-08-30, assigned to Salt Weeds. A variety, Yensen 1a, of Distichlis palmeri, characterized by vigorous growth in salty soils, high grain yield and ideal form for harvest, and for human consumption.
US 4767889, Yensen, Nicholas P., "Yensen 2a", published 1988-08-30, assigned to Salt Weeds. A grain variety, Yensen 2a, of Distichlis palmeri, which are characterized by vigorous growth in salty soils, high grain yield and ideal form for harvest. This grain variety has excellent taste qualities.
"NEW FOOD CROPS". flora. Retrieved 2 February 2022.
From Toxicity to Profitability: Environmental Stewardship via Integrated Farm Drainage Management (IFDM), Andrews, M. (2012), Bakersfield, California
John Leake, Ed Barrett-Lennard, Mark Sargeant, Nicholas Yensen , Johnny Prefumo (December 2002). "NyPa Distichlis Cultivars: Rehabilitation of Highly Saline Areas for Forage Turf and Grain". RIRDC Publication No 02/154. RIRDC Project No NYP-1A.
Bresdin, Cylphine; Livingston, Margaret; Glenn, Edward P. (2016), Khan, M. Ajmal; Boër, Benno; Ȫzturk, Münir; Clüsener-Godt, Miguel (eds.), "Design Concept of a Reverse Osmosis Reject Irrigated Landscape: Connecting Source to Sabkha", Sabkha Ecosystems, Cham: Springer International Publishing, vol. 48, pp. 237–250, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-27093-7_12, ISBN 978-3-319-27091-3, retrieved 4 March 2022
Van Tassel, David; DeHaan, Lee (2013). "Wild Plants to the Rescue". American Scientist. 100 (3): 218. doi:10.1511/2013.102.218. ISSN 0003-0996.
Fedoroff, N. V.; Battisti, D. S.; Beachy, R. N.; Cooper, P. J. M.; Fischhoff, D. A.; Hodges, C. N.; Knauf, V. C.; Lobell, D.; Mazur, B. J.; Molden, D.; Reynolds, M. P. (12 February 2010). "Radically Rethinking Agriculture for the 21st Century". Science. 327 (5967): 833–834. doi:10.1126/science.1186834. ISSN 0036-8075. PMC 3137512. PMID 20150494.
Ventura, Yvonne; Eshel, Amram; Pasternak, Dov; Sagi, Moshe (2015). "The development of halophyte-based agriculture: past and present". Annals of Botany. 115 (3): 529–540. doi:10.1093/aob/mcu173. ISSN 1095-8290. PMC 4332600. PMID 25122652.
Brown, J. Jed; Glenn, Edward P.; Smith, S. E. (2014), Khan, M. Ajmal; Böer, Benno; Öztürk, Münir; Al Abdessalaam, Thabit Zahran (eds.), "Feasibility of Halophyte Domestication for High-Salinity Agriculture", Sabkha Ecosystems: Volume IV: Cash Crop Halophyte and Biodiversity Conservation, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, vol. 47, pp. 73–80, doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7411-7_5, ISBN 978-94-007-7410-0, retrieved 4 March 2022

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