Fine Art

Echinocereus reichenbachii ssp. reichenbachii

Echinocereus reichenbachii ssp. reichenbachii , Photo: Michael Lahanas

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Caryophyllales

Familia: Cactaceae
Subfamilia: Cactoideae
Tribus: Echinocereeae
Genus: Echinocereus
Sectio: E. sect. Reichenbachii
Species: Echinocereus reichenbachii
Subspecies: E. r. subsp. armatus – E. r. subsp. baileyi – E. r. subsp. burrensis – E. r. subsp. fitchii – E. r. subsp. perbellus – E. r. subsp. reichenbachii

Echinocereus reichenbachii (Terscheck ex Walp.) J.N.Haage ex Britton & Rose, 1859


Echinocactus reichenbachii Terscheck ex Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 2: 320. 1843 syn. sec. Parfitt & Gibson 2003
Echinopsis pectinata var. reichenbachii (Terscheck ex Walp.) Salm-Dyck, Cact. Hort. Dyck., ed. 1844: 26. 1845 syn. sec. WFO 2019
Echinocereus reichenbachii var. reichenbachii syn. sec. ???
Echinocereus reichenbachii (Terscheck) Britton & Rose, Cactaceae 3: 25. 1922, nom. inval., syn. sec. Berendsohn 20201
Cereus caespitosus Engelm. in Boston J. Nat. Hist. 5: 247. 1845 syn. sec. ???
Echinocereus caespitosus (Engelm.) Engelm., Mem. Tour N. Mexico: 110. 1848 syn. sec. ???
Echinocereus pectinatus var. caespitosus (Engelm.) K.Schum., Gesamtbeschr. Kakt.: 272. 1898 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)
Echinocereus reichenbachii subsp. caespitosus (Engelm.) W.Blum & Mich.Lange, Echinocereus Prepr.: 8. 1998 syn. sec. Tropicos
Echinopsis reichenbachiana Pfeiff. ex C.F.Först., Handb. Cacteenk.: 365. 1846 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)
Cereus caespitosus var. castaneus Engelm. in Boston J. Nat. Hist. 6: 203. 1850 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)
Cereus reichenbachianus var. castaneus Labour., Monogr. Cactaceae: 319. 1853 syn. sec. Britton & Rose 1922
Echinocereus caespitosus var. castaneus (Engelm.) Rümpler, Handb. Cacteenk., ed. 2: 811. 1885 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)
Echinocereus castaneus (Engelm.) Orcutt in Cactography 4. 1926 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)
Echinocereus caespitosus f. castaneus (Engelm.) Borg, Cacti, ed. 1: 174. 1937 syn. sec. Britton & Rose 1922
Cereus pectinifer Labour., Monogr. Cact.: 320. 1853 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)
Cereus reichenbachianus Labour., Monogr. Cactaceae: 318. 1853 syn. sec. Britton & Rose 1922
Cereus caespitosus var. major Engelm. in Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 3: 280. 1856 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)
Echinocereus caespitosus var. major (Engelm.) Rümpler, Handb. Cacteenk., ed. 2: 811. 1885 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)
Cereus caespitosus var. minor Engelm. in Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 3: 280. 1856 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)
Cereus concolor J.M.Bigelow, Expl. Railroad Mississippi Pacific Add.: 2. 1856 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)
Echinocereus texensis Jacobi in Allg. Gartenzeitung 24: 110. 1856 syn. sec. Britton & Rose 1922
Echinocereus rotatus Linke in Wochenschr. Gärtnerei Pflanzenk. 1: 85. 1858 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)
Echinocereus rungei K.Schum. in Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 124. 1895 syn. sec. Sánchez 2021
Echinocereus reichenbachii subsp. comanchensis D.Felix, Oldach & J.Oldach, Echinocereus reichenbachii-fitchii-Komplex: 209. 2005 syn. sec. Kew WCVP (2019)


Most infraspecific taxa are weakly defined and intergrade and subspecific taxa here are only tentative. These are not always accepted (Parfitt & Gibson).
The name Echinocactus reichenbachianus Terscheck ex Fennel in Otto & A.Dietr., Allg. Gartenzeitung 15: 282 (1843), is sometimes cited but does not exist [1].

Native distribution areas:

Continental: Northern America
Regional: Mexico
Mexico (Hidalgo, Puebla).

Echinocereus reichenbachii

Echinocereus reichenbachii (*)

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Haage, J.N. 1859. Preisverzeichniss Cact. Succ.: 20.

Additional references

Britton, N.L. & Rose, J.N. 1922. The Cactaceae. Descriptions and Illustrations of Plants of the Cactus Family. Vol. 3. 255 pp. + 23 pl. Carnegie Institution of Washington. BHL PDF Reference page. : 3: 25.
Parfitt, B.D. & Gibson, A.C. (2014) in
eFloras 2008. Echinocereus reichenbachii in Flora of North America . Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Korotkova, N., Aquino, D., Arias, S., Eggli, U., Franck, A. , Gómez-Hinostrosa, C., Guerrero, P.C., Hernández, H.M., Kohlbecker, A., Köhler, M., Luther, K., Majure, L.C., Müller, A., Metzing, D., Nyffeler, R., Sánchez, D., Schlumpberger, B. & Berendsohn, W.G. 2021. Cactaceae at Caryophyllales. org–a dynamic online species-level taxonomic backbone for the family. Willdenowia 51(2): 251–270. DOI: 10.3372/wi.51.51208 Open access Reference page.


Korotkova, N. et al. 2021. Echinocereus reichenbachii in Cactaceae at A global synthesis of species diversity in the angiosperm order Caryophyllales. Published online. Accessed: 2021 Dec 13. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Echinocereus reichenbachii in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2021 Dec 13. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Echinocereus reichenbachii. Published online. Accessed: Dec 13 2021. 2021. Echinocereus reichenbachii. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 13 Dec 2021.
Hassler, M. 2021. Echinocereus reichenbachii. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2021 Dec 13. Reference page.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Echinocereus reichenbachii in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Vernacular names
English: Chicken Pox, Black Lace Cactus, Classen's Cactus, Fitch's Hedgehog, Lace Cactus, Merry Widow Cactus, Purple Candle Cactus, Bailey's Hedgehog Cactus

Echinocereus reichenbachii (commonly known as lace or hedgehog cactus) is a perennial plant and shrub in the cactus family. The species is native to the Chihuahuan Desert and parts of northern Mexico and the southern United States, where they grow at elevations up to 1,500 meters (4,900 ft). This cactus earned the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

E. reichenbachii is one of the smaller Echinocereus species. They reach 7.5 to 30 centimetres (3.0 to 11.8 in) tall and 4 to 10 centimetres (1.6 to 3.9 in) wide. Plants are solitary or clustered in as many as 12, with erect stems that have 10 to 19 ribs. The stems are dark green and often obscured by the spines, which range from tan, brown, black, or pink, and the tips are usually darker than the shaft. The areoles are elliptical or oval, with seven to 36 spines each. The purple or pink flowers bloom in early May to late June, growing to approximately 4.5 to 8 centimetres (1.8 to 3.1 in) by 5 to 10 centimetres (2.0 to 3.9 in). E. reichenbachii are cold and heat tolerant, and prefer dry, well-drained soils near rock outcroppings.


The scientific name, Echinocereus, comes from the Greek ekhinos, meaning hedgehog, and cereus, the Latin term for wax paper.[2] The specific epithet honors the German botanist Ludwig Reichenbach.[3] Common names include Lace hedgehog cactus, Lace cactus, Lace hedgehog, Purple candle, and Órgano-pequeño de colores.[4]

In 1843, German botanist Carl Adolf Terscheck named a specimen of cactus collected in Mexico Echinocactus reichenbachii, but his description was incomplete and proved unhelpful to later scholars. During the years 1848 to 1856, George Engelmann made extensive studies of a plant he named Echinocereus caespitosus.[5] Prior to this Joseph zu Salm-Reifferscheidt-Dyck referred to plants in European collections as Echinopsis pectinate var. reichenbachiana, and he later discussed the possibility with Engelmann that these two plants were one and the same.[6]

Despite the early indication of a naming error, Engelmann's binomial was used to describe the plant until 1893, when F.A. Haage Jr. changed Terscheck's Echinocactus reichenbachii to Echinocereus reichenbachii, which Nathaniel Lord Britton and Joseph Nelson Rose later adopted. This broke with the long-standing botanical tradition to use the earliest known name, but because Terscheck's description was lacking and possibly referred to as many as a dozen species, his binomial was supplanted by Haage's.[6]
Variations and subspecies

Variations of Echinocereus reichenbachii include E. reichenbachii var. albertii, E. reichenbachii var. fitchii, E. reichenbachii var. albispinus, E. reichenbachii subsp. armatus, E. reichenbachii subsp. burrensis, and E. reichenbachii subsp. fitchii. Direct children include E. reichenbachii var. baileyi, E. reichenbachii var. perbellus, and E. reichenbachii var. reichenbachii.[7]

E. reichenbachii var. albertii (commonly called the Black Lace cactus) is a federally listed endangered species of the United States that is endemic to Texas.[8] It has been listed as endangered since 1979. Populations of E. reichenbachii var. albertii are found near the Kleberg, Jim Wells, and Refugio counties of south Texas.[9] Destruction of habitat, over-collecting, and livestock grazing have all contributed to its endangered status.[10]
A color picture of a green and cactus with white spines
E. reichenbachii

Echinocereus reichenbachii is a perennial plant and shrub.[1] It is one of the smaller Echinocereus species.[3] Immature specimens are spherical, and as they grow they become cylindrical.[4] Plants are solitary or multi-branched in clusters of as many as twelve, with erect stems with 10 to 19 slightly undulate ribs. They reach 7.5 to 30 centimetres (3.0 to 11.8 in) tall and 4 to 10 centimetres (1.6 to 3.9 in) wide.[11] The stems are dark green and obscured by the spines, especially when the plant is dehydrated. Areoles are elliptical or oval.[3] They are spaced 1 to 6 millimetres (0.039 to 0.236 in) apart, with 15 to 36 spines each. The spines are tan, to brown, black, purplish black, or pink, and the tips are usually darker than the shaft. The central spines tend to be the darkest. There are up to 7 central spines per areole; they are 1 to 6 millimetres (0.039 to 0.236 in) long.[11]

Plants flower in early May and late June, and they fruit 6 to 10 weeks after flowering.[11] Flowers open for just one day, but anthesis is usually staggered so plants have blooming flowers for a full week; buds are covered in white wool that hides the fruit as it develops.[3] The flower's inner tepals are silvery pink or magenta; the outer portions are white, crimson, green, or multicolored. They are approximately 4.5 to 8 centimetres (1.8 to 3.1 in) by 5 to 10 centimetres (2.0 to 3.9 in), and the flower tubes are 22 to 40 millimetres (0.87 to 1.57 in) by 10 to 30 millimetres (0.39 to 1.18 in). The tube hairs are 5 to 15 millimetres (0.20 to 0.59 in) long, and the nectar chamber is 2 to 5 millimetres (0.079 to 0.197 in) deep.[11] Flowers have 30 to 50 petals each, which are ragged or notched. Pistils are multi-lobed and green, and stamens are cream-colored or yellow.[4] Fruits are various shades of green and 15 to 28 millimetres (0.59 to 1.10 in) long.[11]
Native habitat

E. reichenbachii's native habitat includes the entirety of the Chihuahuan Desert and its nearby grasslands, as well as in woodlands of oak and juniper. They grown at elevations up to 1,500 meters (4,900 ft).[11] In the United States, E. reichenbachii is native to Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, and Nebraska.[1] They are also found in Kansas and Oklahoma. The variety found in Oklahoma, E. reichenbachii baileyi, have especially long "bristlelike" spines.[11] E. reichenbachii is native to the northern Mexican states of Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas.[11]
Cultivation and propagation

E. reichenbachii prefer full sun and require little water. They thrive in dry, well-drained, gravelly, clay, and loam soils, and near rock outcroppings. They are cold and heat tolerant, and grow well under glass.[12] They are drought resistant, but susceptible to mealybugs and scale insects.[13]

Propagation is facilitated by seeds collected as the fruits begin to dry. The species is used in commercial landscaping as ornamental features, particularly in desert environments. Plants are considered deer resistant.[4] E. reichenbachii earned the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[13][14]


United States Department of Agriculture.
Holloway & Neill 2005, p. 60.
Powell & Weedin 2004, p. 245.
Ladybird Johnson Wildflower Center.
Weniger 1969, p. 20.
Weniger 1969, p. 21.
Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
Texas Parks and Wildlife, pp. 1–24.
Texas Parks and Wildlife (b).
Center for Plant Conservation.
Flora of North America.
Ladybird Johnson Wildflower Center; Royal Horticultural Society: loam soil and grown under glass.
Royal Horticultural Society.

"AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 34. Retrieved February 6, 2018.


"CPC National Collection Plant Profile: Echinocereus reichenbachii var. albertii", Center for Plant Conservation, retrieved September 14, 2015
Holloway, Joel Ellis; Neill, Amanda (2005), Neill, Amanda (ed.), A Dictionary of Common Wildflowers of Texas & the Southern Great Plains (Illustrated ed.), TCU Press, ISBN 978-0-87565-309-9
"Echinocereus reichenbachii", Flora of North America, vol. 4, p. 173
"Echinocereus reichenbachii", Integrated Taxonomic Information System, retrieved September 11, 2015
"Native Plant Database: Echinocereus reichenbachii", Ladybird Johnson Wildflower Center, University of Texas at Austin, retrieved September 12, 2015
Powell, A. Michael; Weedin, James (2004), Cacti of the Trans-Pecos & Adjacent Areas: Grover E. Murray Studies in the American Southwest Series (Illustrated ed.), Texas Tech University Press, ISBN 978-0-89672-531-7
"Echinocereus reichenbachii", Royal Horticultural Society, retrieved September 11, 2015
"Black Lace Cactus (Echinocereus reichenbachii var. albertii): 5-year Review: Summary and Evaluation" (PDF), Texas Parks and Wildlife Department; United States Fish and Wildlife Service; Corpus Christi Ecological Services Field Office, retrieved September 14, 2015
"Black Lace Cactus (Echinocereus reichenbachii var. albertii)", Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, retrieved September 14, 2015
"Plant Profile: Echinocereus reichenbachii", United States Department of Agriculture, retrieved September 11, 2015
Weniger, Del (1969), Cacti of the Southwest: Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana (Illustrated ed.), University of Texas Press, ISBN 978-0-292-70000-0

Plants, Fine Art Prints

Plants Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from ""
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World