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Escobaria missouriensis (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Caryophyllales

Familia: Cactaceae
Subfamilia: Cactoideae
Tribus: Cacteae
Genus: Escobaria
Sectio: E. sect. Neobesseya
Species: Escobaria missouriensis
Subspecies: E. m. subsp. asperispina – E. m. subsp. missouriensis

Escobaria missouriensis (Sweet) D.R.Hunt, 1978

Cactus missouriensis (Sweet) Kuntze
Cactus missouriensis var. robustior (Engelm.) J.M.Coult.
Cactus missouriensis var. similis (Engelm. & A.Gray) J.M.Coult.
Cactus notesteinii (Britton) Rydb.
Cactus similis (Engelm. & A.Gray) Small
Coryphantha marstonii Clover
Coryphantha missouriensis (Sweet) Britton & Rose
Coryphantha missouriensis var. caespitosa (Engelm.) L.D.Benson
Coryphantha missouriensis var. marstonii (Clover) L.D.Benson
Coryphantha missouriensis var. robustior (Engelm.) L.D.Benson
Coryphantha nuttallii Engelm. ex C.F.Först.
Coryphantha similis (Engelm.) Britton & Rose
Coryphantha wissmannii (Hildm. ex K.Schum.) A.Berger
Echinocactus similis Poselg.
Escobaria missouriensis var. caespitosa (Engelm.) D.R.Hunt
Escobaria missouriensis var. marstonii (Clover) D.R.Hunt
Escobaria missouriensis subsp. navajoensis Hochstätter
Escobaria missouriensis var. robustior (Engelm.) D.R.Hunt
Escobaria missouriensis var. similis (Engelm. & A.Gray) N.P.Taylor
Mammillaria missouriensis Sweet
Mammillaria missouriensis var. caespitosa (Engelm.) S.Watson
Mammillaria missouriensis var. nuttallii (Engelm.) Schelle
Mammillaria missouriensis var. robustior (Engelm.) S.Watson
Mammillaria missouriensis var. similis (Engelm. & A.Gray) S.Watson ex K.Schum.
Mammillaria notesteinii Britton
Mammillaria nuttallii Engelm.
Mammillaria nuttallii var. borealis Engelm.
Mammillaria nuttallii var. caespitosa (Engelm.) Engelm.
Mammillaria nuttallii var. robustior (Engelm.) Engelm. & J.M.Bigelow
Mammillaria similis Engelm. & A.Gray
Mammillaria similis var. caespitosa Engelm.
Mammillaria similis var. robustior Engelm.
Mammillaria simplex Torr. & A.Gray
Mammillaria wissmannii Hildm. ex K.Schum.
Neobesseya missouriensis (Sweet) Britton & Rose
Neobesseya missouriensis subsp. similis (Engelm. & A.Gray) Doweld
Neobesseya notesteinii (Britton) Britton & Rose
Neobesseya nuttallii (Engelm. ex C.F.Först.) Boed.
Neobesseya similis (Engelm. & A.Gray) Britton & Rose
Neobesseya wissmannii (Hildm. ex K.Schum.) Britton & Rose
Neomammillaria missouriensis (Sweet) Britton & Rose ex Rydb.

Native distribution areas:

Continental: Northern America
Regional: Central USA
Arizona, Colorado, Illinois, Kansas, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Wyoming

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Hunt, D.R., 1978. Cactus and Succulent Journal of Great Britain 40: 13

Additional references

Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
Govaerts, R.H.A. 2001. World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919. [unavailable to the public] Reference page. 
Korotkova, N., Aquino, D., Arias, S., Eggli, U., Franck, A. , Gómez-Hinostrosa, C., Guerrero, P.C., Hernández, H.M., Kohlbecker, A., Köhler, M., Luther, K., Majure, L.C., Müller, A., Metzing, D., Nyffeler, R., Sánchez, D., Schlumpberger, B. & Berendsohn, W.G. 2021. Cactaceae at Caryophyllales. org–a dynamic online species-level taxonomic backbone for the family. Willdenowia 51(2): 251–270. DOI: 10.3372/wi.51.51208 Open access Reference page. 


Korotkova, N. et al. 2021. Escobaria missouriensis in Cactaceae at A global synthesis of species diversity in the angiosperm order Caryophyllales. Published online. Accessed: 2021 Nov 14. Reference page. 
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Escobaria missouriensis in Kew Science Plants of the World Online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2021 Mar 13. Reference page. 
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Escobaria missouriensis. Published online. Accessed: Mar 13 2021. 2021. Escobaria missouriensis. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 13 Mar 2021.
Hassler, M. 2021. Escobaria missouriensis. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2021 Mar 13. Reference page. 

Vernacular names
English: Missouri foxtail cactus

Escobaria missouriensis, the Missouri foxtail cactus and formerly Coryphantha missouriensis, is a species of low-growing North American cacti. It is found in along the Missouri River in the tallgrass prairie and shortgrass Great Plains, from Texas to Montana and the Dakotas, and in the Rocky Mountains woodlands of Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), pinyon-juniper, and Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) west of it. It is also native to the Southwestern United States in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah.[2][3][4]

Escobaria missouriensis grows up to 30 centimetres (12 in) high and forms clumps to 30 centimetres (12 in) or greater in diameter. They are generally larger in the Southwest. The plants are primarily unbranched, except eastern populations that can be profusely branched. The spines are bright white, pale gray, or pale tan, weathering to gray or yellowish brown.[2] The plant blooms in April to June, with flowers that are pale greenish yellow to yellow-green with midstripes of green or rose-pink to pale brown.[2][5]

Escobaria missouriensis has been extirpated from many of its historically known sites by introduced fire ants, suburban development, brush encroachment following fire suppression, and over-grazing.[2]


Escobaria missouriensis subsp. asperispina (Boed.) N.P.Taylor
Escobaria missouriensis subsp. missouriensis


The Plant List, Escobaria missouriensis (Sweet) D.R.Hunt
Flora of North America, Missouri foxtail cactus Coryphantha missouriensis . accessed 4.4.2011
United States Department of Agriculture plants profile, Escobaria missouriensis . accessed 4.4.2011
Biota of North America Program, 2014 county distribution map
NPIN_Escobaria missouriensis . accessed 4.4.2011

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