Fine Art

Euonymus Europaeus Print by Otto Wilhelm Thome

Euonymus europaeus, Otto Wilhelm Thome

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Celastrales

Familia: Celastraceae
Genus: Euonymus
Subgenus: E. subg. Euonymus
Sectio: E. sect. Euonymus
Serie: E. ser. Euonymus
Species: Euonymus europaeus

Euonymus europaeus L. (1753)

Euonymus angustifolius Gilib.
Euonymus bulgarica Velen.
Euonymus czernjaevii Klok.
Euonymus europaea var. involuta Lindern.
Euonymus europaea subsp. moldavica (Klok.) Grosset
Euonymus europaea subsp. pontica Savul. & Rayss
Euonymus europaea var. suberoso-alata Lindem.
Euonymus europaea subsp. subvelutina (Savul. & Rayss) Grosset
Euonymus europaea var. subvelutina Savul. & Rayss
Euonymus europaeus var. suberosus (Klokov) Tzvelev
Euonymus flavescens Hort.
Euonymus floribunda Stev.
Euonymus latifolius S. G. Gmel.
Euonymus medirossica Klok.
Euonymus moldavica Klok.
Euonymus multiflorus Opiz ex Bercht.
Euonymus odessana Klok.
Euonymus pubescens Stev.
Euonymus purpureus Hort.
Euonymus quadrigonus Gueldenst. ex Ledeb.
Euonymus suberosus Klok.
Euonymus vulgaris Miller
Euonymus vulgaris var. microphyllus Beck
Evonymus tenuifolia Dalla Torre & Sarnth.

Native distribution areas:
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 197. Reference page.


Hassler, M. 2019. Euonymus europaeus. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2019 October 01. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Euonymus europaeus in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2019 October 01. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Euonymus europaeus. Published online. Accessed: October 01 2019. 2019. Euonymus europaeus. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 01 October 2019.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Euonymus europaeus in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 09-Oct-10.

Vernacular names
العربية: مضاض أوروبي
azərbaycanca: Avropa gərməşovu
català: Boneter europeu, Evònim europeu
kaszëbsczi: Zwëczajny brzëmielnik
čeština: brslen evropský
Cymraeg: Piswydden piswydd
dansk: Almindelig Benved, Benved
Deutsch: Europäisches Pfaffenhütchen
English: spindle, european spindle, common spindle
español: bonetero, bonete de cura, evónimo, husera, agracejo, aliso negro, arraclán, boj, boje, boj montés, bonete turco, bonetillo, boz, bujo, ervonimo, evonimo, falso boj, falso boje, matapiejos, matapiojos, monetillo, monrollonera, palo de cuatro carreras, palo de cuatro carretas, árbol madari catuba, usera, vólivo
eesti: Harilik kikkapuu, Sajakoorne, Kikkapuu
euskara: Basaerramu
suomi: Euroopansorvarinpensas, sorvarinpaatsama
français: Fusain, Fusain d'Europe
hornjoserbsce: Europski kapralc, Euonymus europaea, Čerwjene kłobučki, Kokorači kerk, Kapłanki, Honačik, Kaponjace drjewo, Kaponki
magyar: Csíkos kecskerágó
Ido: Fuzeno
íslenska: Beinviður
italiano: berretta del prete, fusaggine, evonimo, Evonymus europaeus
lietuvių: Europinis ožekšnis
norsk bokmål: Spolebusk
Nederlands: Wilde kardinaalsmuts
polski: Trzmielina pospolita, Trzmielina europejska, Trzmielina zwyczajna
português: evónimo
русский: Бересклет европейский, Бруслина
sardu: Arangixeddu arrùbiu
slovenčina: bršlen európsky
српски / srpski: Курика
svenska: Benved, Korsbär, Spelbom
українська: Бруслина європейська

Euonymus europaeus, the spindle, European spindle, or common spindle, is a species of flowering plant in the family Celastraceae, native to much of Europe, where it inhabits the edges of forest, hedges and gentle slopes, tending to thrive on nutrient-rich, chalky and salt-poor soils. It is a deciduous shrub or small tree.


Euonymus europaeus grows to 3–6 m (10–20 ft) tall, rarely 10 m (33 ft), with a stem up to 20 cm (8 in) in diameter. The leaves are opposite, lanceolate to elliptical, 3–8 cm long and 1–3 cm broad, with a finely serrated edge. Leaves are dark green in summer. Autumn colour ranges from yellow-green to reddish-purple, depending on environmental conditions.[1]

The hermaphrodite flowers are produced in late spring and are insect-pollinated; they are rather inconspicuous, small, yellowish green and grow in cymes of 3–8 together. The capsular fruit ripens in autumn, and is red to purple or pink in colour and approximately 1–1.5 cm wide. When ripe, the four lobes split open to reveal the orange seeds.
Cultivation and uses

It is a popular ornamental plant in gardens and parks due to its bright pink or purple fruits and attractive autumn colouring.

In cultivation in the UK, the cultivar 'Red Cascade' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[2][3]

European spindle wood is very hard, and can be cut to a sharp point; it was used in the past for making spindles for wool-spinning and for butchers' skewers.[4]

Charcoal produced from this plant is seen as superior among artists due to its strength and density.

Parts of the plant have been used medicinally.[5] However, the fruit is poisonous, containing, amongst other substances, the alkaloids theobromine and caffeine, as well as an extremely bitter terpene. Poisonings are more common in young children, who are enticed by the brightly coloured fruits. Ingestion can result in liver and kidney damage and even death.[6]

Euonymus multiflorus Opiz ex Bercht. [1838]
Euonymus floribundus Steven [1856]
Euonymus europaeus var. macrophyllus Rchb.
Euonymus europaeus var. intermedius Gaudin
Euonymus bulgaricus Velen. [1891]
Euonymus vulgaris Mill. [1768]
Euonymus angustifolius Clairv.[7]


Dirr, Michael A. 1998. Manual of Woody Landscape Plants, 5th edi
"Euonymus europaeus 'Red Cascade' AGM". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
"AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 37. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
Clapham, A. R. (1975). The Oxford Book of Trees. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p.31.
Plants for a Future: Euonymus europaeus
"Beware the poisonous autumn berries!". Fat Hen The Wild Cookery School. October 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
"Tela Botánica". Archived from the original on 2012-03-29. Retrieved 2011-09-06.

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