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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Gentianales

Familia: Rubiaceae
Subfamilia: Cinchonoideae
Tribus: Chiococceae
Genus: Exostema
Species: E. acuminatum – E. angustifolium – E. bicolor – E. brachycarpum – E. caribaeum – E. coriaceum – E. corymbosum – E. ellipticum – E. glaberrimum – E. lancifolium – E. lineatum – E. lucidum – E. longiflorum – E. monticola – E. nitens – E. polyphyllum – E. purpureum – E. revolutum – E. rotundatum – E. salicifolium – E. sanctae-luciae – E. spinosum – E. stenophyllum – E. triflorum

Exostema (Pers.) Bonpl., in F.W.H.A.von Humboldt & A.J.A.Bonpland, Pl. Aequinoct. 1: 131. (1808)

Type species: Exostema caribaeum (Jacq.) Schult. in J.J.Roemer & J.A.Schultes, Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 5: 19. (1819)


Cinchona subg. Exostema Pers., Syn. Pl. 1: 196. (1805)
Steudelago Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 298 (1891).


Humboldt, F.W.H.A. von & Bonpland, A.J.A. 1807. Pl. Aequin. 1: 131.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Exostema in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Feb. 9. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Exostema. Published online. Accessed: Feb. 9 2019. 2010. Exostema. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2010 Feb. 9.

Exostema is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae. It consists of trees and shrubs, endemic to the neotropics, with most of the species occurring in the West Indies.[1][2]


Exostema is a genus of neotropical trees and shrubs. The flowers have a slender corolla tube with recurved corolla lobes. The stamens are inserted near the base of the corolla tube and exserted well beyond its mouth. The anthers are long and basifixed.[3]

The type species for the genus is Exostema caribaeum.[4] It is a tree of Central America and the Caribbean. Its lumber is of limited use.[1]

Exostema was first named by Christiaan Hendrik Persoon as a subgenus of Cinchona.[5] It was first validly published as a genus by Aimé Bonpland in 1807.[6][7] The generic name is derived from the Ancient Greek words, exo, meaning "outside", and stema, "stamen".[8]

Exostema is probably polyphyletic.[9]

Exostema acuminatum Urb.
Exostema angustifolium (Sw.) Schult.
Exostema bicolor Poepp.
Exostema brachycarpum (Sw.) Schult.
Exostema caribaeum (Jacq.) Schult.
Exostema cordatum Borhidi & M.Fernandez
Exostema coriaceum (Poir.) Schult.
Exostema corymbosum (Ruiz & Pav.) Spreng.
Exostema curbeloi Borhidi & M.Fernandez
Exostema ellipticum Griseb.
Exostema glaberrimum Borhidi & M.Fernandez
Exostema lancifolium Borhidi & Acuna
Exostema lineatum (Vahl) Schult.
Exostema longiflorum (Lamb.) Schult.
Exostema maynense Poepp.
Exostema mexicanum A.Gray
Exostema microcarpum Borhidi & M.Fernandez
Exostema myrtifolium Griseb.
Exostema nites Urb.
Exostema orbiculatum Proctor
Exostema parviflorum A.Rich. ex Humb. & Bonpl.
Exostema pervestitum Borhidi & M.Fernandez
Exostema polyphyllum Urb. & Ekman
Exostema pulverulentum Borhidi
Exostema purpureum Griseb.
Exostema rotundatum Griseb.
Exostema salicifolium Griseb.
Exostema sanctae-luciae (Kentisch) Britten
Exostema selleanum Urb.
Exostema spinosum (Le Vavass.) Krug & Urb.
Exostema stenophyllum Britton
Exostema triflorum (W.Wright) G.Don
Exostema valenzuelae A.Rich.
Exostema velutinum Standl.


Mabberley DJ (2008). Mabberley's Plant Book (3 ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-82071-4.
"Exostema in the World Checklist of Rubiaceae". Retrieved 20 June 2014.
McDowell T; Bremer B (1998). "Phylogeny, diversity, and distribution in Exostema (Rubiaceae): implications of morphological and molecular analyses". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 212 (3–4): 215–246. doi:10.1007/bf01089740. S2CID 23714607.
"Exostema in the Index Nominum Genericorum". Retrieved 20 June 2014.
Christiaan Hendrik Persoon. 1805. Synopsis plantarum,seu Enchiridium botanicum, complectens enumerationem systematicam specierum hucusque cognitarum /curante. 1:196.
"Exostema in the International Plant Names Index". Retrieved 20 June 2014.
Alexander von Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland. 1807. Plantes équinoxiales recueillies au Mexique :dans l'île de Cuba, dans les provinces de Caracas, de Cumana et de Barcelone, aux Andes de la Nouvelle Grenade, de Quito et du Pérou, et sur les bords du rio-Negro de Orénoque et de la rivière des Amazones. 1:131. F. Schoell: Paris, France.
Quattrocchi U (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. 1. Boca Raton, New York, Washington DC, London: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-2675-2.
Manns U, Bremer B (2010). "Towards a better understanding of intertribal relationships and stable tribal delimitations within Cinchonoideae s.s. (Rubiaceae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 56 (1): 21–39. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.04.002. PMID 20382247.

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