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Galeopsis pubescens 250807

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Lamiaceae
Subfamilia: Lamioideae
Tribus: Galeopseae
Genus: Galeopsis
Species: Galeopsis pubescens

Galeopsis pubescens Besser, 109

Galeopsis pubescens Griseb. = Galeopsis speciosa Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8: n.° 3 (1768).


Galeopsis pubescens var. mollis Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 4: 57 (1829), not validly publ.
Galeopsis tetrahit var. pubescens (Besser) Benth. in Candolle, Prodr. 12: 497 (1848).
Galeopsis tetrahit subsp. pubescens (Besser) Celak., Prodr. Fl. Böhmen: 356 (1871).
Galeopsis walteriana Schltdl., Fl. Berol. 1: 320 (1823).
Galeopsis versicolor Spenn., Fl. Friburg. 2: 394 (1826), nom. illeg.
Galeopsis pubescens var. minor Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 4: 57 (1829).
Galeopsis variegata Wender., Fl. Hassiaca: 195 (1846).
Galeopsis sulphurea Jord., Cat. Jard. Dijon: 19 (1848).
Galeopsis versicolor var. sulphurea (Jord.) Rchb.f. in H.G.L.Reichenbach, Icon. Fl. Germ. Helv. 18: 18 (1858).
Tetrahit sulphureum (Jord.) Fourr., Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 17: 135 (1869).
Galeopsis ladanum var. grandiflora Rigo, Pl. Ital. Bor.: ? (1878).
Galeopsis tetrahit subsp. pubescens Arcang., Comp. Fl. Ital.: 554 (1882).
Galeopsis murriana Borbás & Wettst. ex Murr, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 38: 238 (1888).
Galeopsis nodosa var. sulphurea (Jord.) St.-Lag. in A.Cariot, Étude Fl., éd. 8, 2: 667 (1889).
Galeopsis pubescens var. carthusianorum Briq., Lab. Alp. Mar.: 171 (1891).
Galeopsis speciosa subsp. sulphurea (Jord.) Briq., Lab. Alp. Mar.: 172 (1891).
Galeopsis subspeciosa Borbás, Term. Füz. 17: 65 (1894).

Native distribution areas:

Continental: Europe
Regional: Southeastern Europe
Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Romania, Ukraine, Yugoslavia
Regional: Central Europe
Austria, Belarus, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Switzerland
Regional: Southwestern Europe
Regional: Eastern Europe
Northwest European R, Poland
Continental: Asia-Temperate
Regional: Caucasus
North Caucasus
Introduced into:
Krasnoyarsk, Primorye

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Besser, W.S.J.G.v., 1809. Primitiae Florae Galiciae Austriacae Utriusque 2:27.
Additional references

Delipavlov, D. & Cheshmedzhiev, I. (eds.) (2011). Opredelitel na rasteniiata v Bulgariia: 1-590. Akad. Isd. Agrar. Univers. Plovdiv.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2022. Galeopsis pubescens in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2022 June 09. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2022. Galeopsis pubescens. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2022. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2022 June 09. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2022. Galeopsis pubescens. Published online. Accessed: June 09 2022.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Galeopsis pubescens in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 2022 June 09.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Зябер пушысты
suomi: Karvapillike
Nederlands: Zachte hennepnetel

Galeopsis pubescens, also known as the hairy[2][3] and downy hempnettle,[2][4] is a herbaceous annual plant species in the family Lamiaceae,[5] that can be found growing in various European countries.[1]

1 Taxonomy
2 Description
3 Distribution
4 Gallery
5 References
6 External links


Galeopsis pubescens was for the first time described by Austrian botanist Wilibald Swibert Joseph Gottlieb von Besser in his work titled Primitiae Florae Galiciae Austriacae Utriusque in year 1809.[1]

Some authors recognize two distinct subspecies of this species:[1]

Galeopsis pubescens subsp. murriana (Borbás & Wettst.) Murr
Galeopsis pubescens subsp. pubescens

Some sources list three different varieties:[1]

Galeopsis pubescens var. carthusianorum Briq.
Galeopsis pubescens var. minor Gaudin
Galeopsis pubescens var. mollis Gaudin

There is also a long list of possible synonyms.[1]

This upright-growing herbaceous annual hempnettle can reach from 20 to 50 centimetres of height and usually has spread out upper part. Its four-edged stem is covered with both soft and bristle-like hair, with bristles primarily covering plant's nodes. In most cases the stem is thickened right below the nodes. Its alternately arranged simple and entire leaves are always petiolate (with leafstalk), serrated and covered with trichomes.[5][6][4] They can reach the length of 7 centimetres[4] and are lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate in shape and end with sharpened point.[5] There are no stipules.[6]

The hempnettle's scarlet to scarlet red zygomorphic flowers can reach from 2 to 2.5 centimetres of size and are arranged into an apparent whorled inflorescence, which is actually an cyme. Galeopsis pubescens has typical sage family flowers with two-lipped corolla (so-called bilabiate flowers). Mutually fused petals have yellow corolla tube. The plant's upper lip is three-lobed, with the bigger white or yellow-spotted middle lobe and smaller side lobes. The scarlet coloured lower lip is bent and hirsute. The plant's sepals are also fused into a calyx tube, which is covered with thick layer of hair and ends with pointed calyx teeth.[5][6]

Flowers lack any essential oils and hence do not have any special smell.[5] This entomophilous[6] plant's flowering period is between July and September.[7][8] The plant's dry fruit are brown to black nutlets, that come in bundles of four, with each containing only one seed.[6]

Layman can mistake Galeopsis pubescens with similar hempnettles, such as Galeopsis tetrahit and Galeopsis bifida, as well as some other species of the Lamiaceae family, such as Lamium maculatum.[5][8]

In the past this hempnettle was used in traditional medicine.[5]

Galeopsis pubescens is widely distributed across Europe; its distribution range spans from the eastern parts of France on the west to Russia with Caucasus and Siberia in the east.[2] It appears as an introduced species in some parts of Asia.[9]

This relatively common hempnettle can be found growing in many different habitats, including man-made ones. The plant usually grows in forests, on forest edges, near paths, on the fields, vineyards and in various ruderal landscapes,[5][10] with its optimal habitat being different forest types (such as alluvial, oak-hornbeam, ravine, herb-rich beech, acidophilous thermophilous oak, Robinia pseudoacacia and spruce forests).[6]

The Raunkiær system classifies it as a therophyte species, as it is an annual plant that survives unfavorable conditions in the form of seed.[6]


"Galeopsis pubescens Besser". Retrieved 2021-09-09.
"Galeopsis pubescens (GAEPU)[Overview]| EPPO Global Database". Retrieved 2021-09-09.
"ITIS - Report: Galeopsis pubescens". Retrieved 2021-09-09.
"Galeopsis pubescens". Retrieved 2021-09-09.
"Puhasti zebrat - Urbanatura". (in Slovenian). Retrieved 2021-09-08.
Data:Galeopsis pubescens. Pladias – Database of the Czech Flora and Vegetation. Retrieved 9. september 2021.
"Galeopsis pubescens (puhasti zebrat)". (in Slovenian). Retrieved 2021-09-09.
"Species information". Retrieved 2021-09-09.
"Galeopsis pubescens Besser | Plants of the World Online | Kew Science". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 2021-09-09.
"Species - Downy Hemp-Nettle (Galeopsis pubescens Besser)". Retrieved 2021-09-09.

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