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Gelsemium sempervirens - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-065

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Gentianales

Familia: Gelsemiaceae
Genus: Gelsemium
Species: Gelsemium sempervirens

Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) J.St.-Hil., 1800

Gelsemium lucidum Poir.
Gelsemium nitidum Michx.
Gelsemium nitidum var. inodorum Nutt.
Jeffersonia sempervirens (L.) Brickell
Lisianthius sempervirens Mill. ex Steud.
Lisianthius volubilis Salisb.

Native distribution areas:

Continental: Northern America
Regional: Southestern USA
Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia
Regional: Southern Central USA
Arkansas, Texas
Regional: Mexico
Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest
Continental: Southern America
Regional: Central America
Guatemala, Honduras

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Saint-Hilaire, J.H.J. 1800. Exposition des Familles Naturelles 1:338. 1805

Additional references

Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Gelsemium sempervirens in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2021 Jul 10. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Gelsemium sempervirens in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2021 Jul 10. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Gelsemium sempervirens. Published online. Accessed: Jul 10 2021. 2021. Gelsemium sempervirens. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 10 Jul 2021.
Hassler, M. 2021. Gelsemium sempervirens. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2021 Jul 10. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. . Gelsemium sempervirens. Accessed: 10 Jul 2021.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Gelsemium sempervirens in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Carolina-Jasmin
English: Yellow Jessamine
suomi: Rohtojasminio
日本語: カロライナジャス

Gelsemium sempervirens is a twining vine in the family Gelsemiaceae, native to subtropical and tropical America: Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, Mexico (Chiapas, Oaxaca, Veracruz, Puebla, Hidalgo),[3] and southeastern and south-central United States (from Texas to Virginia).[4] It has a number of common names including yellow jessamine or jasmine,[5][6] Carolina jasmine or jessamine,[5][6] evening trumpetflower,[6][7] gelsemium[6] and woodbine.[6]

Yellow jessamine is the state flower of South Carolina.[8]

Despite its common name, the species is not a "true jasmine" and not of the genus Jasminum.


Gelsemium sempervirens can grow to 3–6 m (10–20 ft) high when given suitable climbing support in trees, with thin stems. The leaves are evergreen, lanceolate, 5–10 cm (2–4 in) long and 1–1.5 cm (3⁄8–5⁄8 in) broad, and lustrous, dark green. The flowers are borne in clusters, the individual flowers yellow, sometimes with an orange center, trumpet-shaped, 3 cm (1+1⁄4 in) long and 2.5–3 cm (1–1+1⁄4 in) broad. Its flowers are strongly scented and produce nectar that attracts a range of pollinators.[3]

Some 19th century sources identified Gelsemium sempervirens as a folk remedy for various medical conditions.

All parts of this plant contain the toxic strychnine-related alkaloids gelsemine and gelseminine and should not be consumed.[9] The sap may cause skin irritation in sensitive individuals. Children, mistaking this flower for honeysuckle, have been poisoned by sucking the nectar from the flower.[10] The nectar is also toxic to honeybees,[11] which may cause brood death when gathered by the bees. The nectar may, however, be beneficial to bumblebees. It has been shown that bumblebees fed on gelsemine have a reduced load of Crithidia bombi in their fecal matter after 7 days although this difference was not significant after 10 days). Reduced parasite load increases foraging efficiency, and pollinators may selectively collect otherwise toxic secondary metabolites as a means of self-medication.[12]

The plant can be lethal to livestock.[13]

Despite the hazards, this is a popular garden plant in warmer areas, frequently being trained to grow over arbors or to cover walls. In the UK It has won the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[14] It can be grown outdoors in mild and coastal areas of the UK (to a lower limit of −5 °C (23 °F)), but elsewhere must be grown under glass. It requires a sheltered position in full sun or light shade.[14]
See also

List of poisonous plants
Gelsemium elegans
Gelsemium rankinii


Carolina jessamine shrub -- Gelsemium sempervirens.jpg
Carolina jessamine -- Gelsemium sempervirens.jpg


Tropicos, search for Gelsemium sempervirens
The Plant List, Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) J.St.-Hil.
Ornduff, R. 1970. The systematics and breeding system of Gelsemium (Loganiceae). Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 51(1): 1–17 includes description, drawings, distribution map, etc.
Biota of North America Program 2014 county distribution map
"Gelsemium sempervirens". Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. University of South Florida. Retrieved 2008-02-12.
"Gelsemium sempervirens". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2008-02-12.
"Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) W. T. Aiton". Plants database. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2008-02-12.
"South Carolina State Flower | Yellow Jessamine". Retrieved 2019-10-15.
"Gelsemium sempervirens". Drug Information Online.
Anthony Knight and Richard Walter. 2001. A Guide to Plant Poisoning of Animals in North America.
[1] "Nectar Gardening for Butterflies, Honey Bees and Native Bees", Retrieved 2012-08-02
"Manson, J.S., Otterstatter, M.C., Thomson, J.D. "Consumption of a nectar alkaloid reduces pathogen load in bumble bees". 27 August 2009: Oecologia 162:81-89. Retrieved 2013" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
Niering, William A.; Olmstead, Nancy C. (1985) [1979]. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers, Eastern Region. Knopf. p. 619. ISBN 0-394-50432-1.
"Gelsemium sempervirens". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 9 July 2020.

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