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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordoo: Rosales

Familia: Rhamnaceae
Subfamilia: Ziziphoideae
Tribus: Gouanieae
Genus: Gouania
Species: G. acalyphoides – G. acreana – G. adenophora – G. alnifolia – G. ambrensis – G. andamanica – G. aphrodes – G. aptera – G. australiana – G. blanchetiana – G. callmanderi – G. canescens – G. colombiana – G. conzattii – G. cornifolia – G. corylifolia – G. croatii – G. cupreifolia – G. cupuliflora – G. discolor – G. efatensis – G. ekmanii – G. eurycarpa – G. exilis – G. ferruginea – G. fimbriata – G. frangulifolia – G. gautieri – G. guiengolensis – G. hillebrandii – G. hillii – G. humbertii – G. hypoglauca – G. inornata – G. javanica – G. latifolia – G. laxiflora – G. leptostachya – G. leratii – G. lineata – G. longipetala – G. longispicata – G. lupuloides – G. mangarevica – G. mauritiana – G. meyenii – G. microcarpa – G. myriocarpa – G. napalensis – G. nematostachya – G. obamana – G. pannigera – G. perrieri – G. phillipsonii – G. polygama – G. pubidisca – G. pyrifolia – G. richii – G. riparia – G. rosei – G. rumicina – G. scandens – G. stipularis – G. striata – G. taolagnarensis – G. tiliifolia – G. trichodonta – G. ulmifolia – G. ulugurica – G. velutina – G. virgata – G. viridis – G. vitifolia – G. wurdackii – G. zebrifolia

Gouania Jacq., Select. Stirp. Amer. Hist.: 263 (1763).

Lectotype species: Gouania tomentosa Jacq., designated by Pfeiffer, Nomencl. Bot. 1: 1488 (1874), a synonym of Gouania polygama (Jacq.) Urb.


Gossania Walp., Nov. Actorum Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19(Suppl. 1): 323 (1843).
Gouana L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2: 1663 (1763).
Lupulus Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 117 (1891).
Naegelia Zoll. & Moritzi in A.Moritzi, Syst. Verz. Java: 20 (1846).
Pleuranthodes Weberb. in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3(5): 424 (1896).
Retinaria Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2: 187 (1791).

Primary references

Jacquin, N.J. 1763. Selectarum stirpium Americanarum historia, in qua ad Linnaeanum systema determinatae descriptaeque sistuntur plantae illae, quas in insulis Martinica, Jamaica, Domingo, aliisque, et in vicinae continentis parte, observavit rariores; adjectis iconibus in solo natali delineatis. XII + 284 pp., index, 184 tt. Ex officina Krausiana, Vindobonae [Vienna]. BHL Biblioteca Digital Reference page.

Additional references

Pfeiffer, L.K.G. 1873–1875 ["1874"]. Nomenclator botanicus. Nominum ad finem anni 1858 publici juris factorum, classes, ordines, tribus, familias, divisiones, genera, subgenera vel sectiones designantium enumeratio alphabetica. Adjectis auctoribus, temporibus, locis systematicis apud varios, notis literariis atque etymologicis et synonymis. Vol. I. Pars altera. Pp. i–vi + 809–1876. Sumptibus Theodori Fischeri, Casselis [Kassel]. BHL Reference page.


Hassler, M. 2020. Gouania. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2020. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Sep 12. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Gouania in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Sep 12. Reference page. 2020. Gouania. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Dec 6.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Gouania. Published online. Accessed: Dec. 6 2020.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Gouania (Rhamnaceae) in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 09-Oct-10.

Gouania is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rhamnaceae. The 50 to 70 species it contains are native to tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including Africa, Madagascar, the Indian Ocean islands, southern Asia, the Americas and Hawaii. They are shrubs or lianas. A revision of the species in Madagascar and the other western Indian Ocean islands is in preparation, where the genus has an important centre of diversity. The work will recognise several new species.
Selected species

Gouania corylifolia Raddi (Brazil)
Gouania hillebrandii Oliv. ex Hillebr. (Hawaii)
Gouania leptostachya DC. (South Asia, Southeast Asia)
Gouania longispicata (Central Africa)
Gouania lupuloides (L.) Urb. – chewstick or toothbrush tree (Mexico, the Caribbean, Central America, northern South America)
Gouania meyenii Steud. – smoothfruit chewstick (Hawaii)
Gouania napalensis Wall. (India, Nepal)
Gouania polygama (Jacq.) Urb. (Mexico, Central and South America)
Gouania vitifolia A.Gray – Oʻahu chewstick (Hawaii)[2][3]


"Genus: Gouania Jacq". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2004-02-10. Retrieved 2009-10-17.
"Gouania". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2010-03-08.

"GRIN Species Records of Gouania". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2000-12-02. Retrieved 2009-10-17.

Madagascar Catalogue: Gouania
Flora of Zimbabwe: Gouania

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