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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids II
Ordo: Sapindales

Familia: Meliaceae
Subfamilia: Melioideae
Tribus: Aglaieae
Genus: Guarea

Species: G. aguilarii – G. anomala – G. bijuga – G. blanchetii – G. bullata – G. carapoides – G. carinata – G. cartaguenya  – G. casimiriana – G. cauliracemosa – G. caulobotryis – G. chiricana – G. cinnamomea – G. constricta – G. convergens – G. corrugata – G. corticosa – G. costata – G. crispa – G. cristata – G. donnell-smithii – G. ecuadoriensis – G. eriorhachis – G. fissicalyx – G. fistulosa – G. gentryi – G. glabra – G. gomma – G. gracilis – G. grossa – G. guentheri – G. guidonia – G. hoffmanniana – G. humaitensis – G. inesiana – G. jamaicensis – G. juglandiformis – G. kunthiana – G. lozanoi – G. luxii – G. macrocalyx – G. macrophylla – G. megacostata – G. megantha – G. mexicana – G. michel-moddei – G. pendula – G. persistens – G. polymera – G. pterorhachis – G. pubescens – G. purusana – G. pyriformis – G. reticulatovenosa – G. rhopalocarpa – G. riparia – G. scabra – G. silvatica – G. sphenophylla – G. sprucei – G. subandina – G. subsessilifolia – G. tafae-malekui – G. talamancana – G. tonduzii – G. trunciflora – G. velutina – G. venenata – G. zarceroensis – G. zepivae

Guarea F.Allam., Mant. Pl. Altera 150, 228. (Guara) (1771), nom. cons.

Type species: Guarea guidonia (L.) Sleumer, Taxon 5: 194. (1956) originally designated as synonym Guarea trichilioides L. (1771) nom. superfl.


Samyda L. nom. illeg. hom. vide Samyda Jacq., Enum. Syst. Pl. 4, 21. (1760); vide Dandy, Ind. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 1753-74 (Regn. Veg. li.) 78 (1967) nom. cons. (Salicaceae)
Plumea Lunan
Sycocarpus Britton
Urbanoguarea Harms

Note: Old World combinations now excluded Koenen & de Wilde, (2012)

Allamand, F.L. 1771. Mantissa Plantarum Altera 150, 228.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Guarea in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2021 Jan. 31. Reference page. 
Hassler, M. 2921. Guarea. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2921. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2921 Jan. 31. Reference page. 
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Guarea. Published online. Accessed: Jan. 31 2021.
Koenen, E.J. & de Wilde, J.J. 2012. A taxonomic revision of the reinstated genus Leplaea and the newly recognized genus Neoguarea (Meliaceae, Sapindales): the exclusion of Guarea from Africa. Plant Ecology and Evolution 145(2): 209-241. DOI: 10.5091/plecevo.2012.656 Open access Reference page. 
Pennington, T.D. & Clarkson, J.J. 2013. A revision of Guarea (Meliaceae). Edinburgh Journal of Botany 70(2): 179–362. DOI: 10.1017/S0960428613000036 Open access ResearchGate Reference page. 
Tropicos.org 2021. Guarea. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 31 Jan. 2021.

Guarea is a genus of evergreen trees or shrubs in the family Meliaceae, native to tropical Africa and Central and South America. At their largest, they are large trees 20–45 m tall, with a trunk over 1 m diameter, often buttressed at the base. The leaves are pinnate, with 4–6 pairs of leaflets, the terminal leaflet present. They are dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate plants.[1] The flowers are produced in loose inflorescences, each flower small, with 4–5 yellowish petals. The fruit is a four or five-valved capsule, containing several seeds, each surrounded by a yellow-orange fleshy aril; the seeds are dispersed by hornbills and monkeys which eat the aril.

Species accepted by Plants of the World Online as of March 2019:[2]

Guarea aguilarii Al.Rodr.
Guarea anomala T.D.Penn.
Guarea bijuga C.DC.
Guarea blanchetii C.DC.
Guarea bullata Radlk.
Guarea carapoides Harms
Guarea carinata Ducke
Guarea cartaguenya Cuatrec.
Guarea casimiriana Harms
Guarea caulobotrys Cuatrec. (also spelt caulobotryis)
Guarea chiricana Standl.
Guarea cinnamomea Harms
Guarea constricta Al.Rodr.
Guarea convergens T.D.Penn.
Guarea corrugata Cuatrec.
Guarea corticosa Al.Rodr.
Guarea costata A.Juss.
Guarea crispa T.D.Penn.
Guarea cristata T.D.Penn.
Guarea donnell-smithii C.DC.
Guarea ecuadoriensis W.Palacios
Guarea eriorhachis Harms
Guarea fissicalyx Harms
Guarea fistulosa W.Palacios
Guarea gentryi Coronado
Guarea glabra Vahl
Guarea gomma Pulle
Guarea gracilis T.D.Penn.
Guarea grossa T.D.Penn.
Guarea guentheri Harms
Guarea guidonia (L.) Sleumer
Guarea hoffmanniana C.DC.
Guarea humaitensis T.D.Penn.
Guarea inesiana Al.Rodr.
Guarea jamaicensis Proctor
Guarea juglandiformis T.D.Penn.
Guarea kunthiana A.Juss.
Guarea lozanoi Morales-P.
Guarea luxii C.DC.
Guarea macrocalyx Al.Rodr.
Guarea macrophylla Vahl
Guarea megacostata T.D.Penn.
Guarea megantha A.Juss.
Guarea mexicana Coronado
Guarea michel-moddei T.D.Penn. & S.A.Mori
Guarea pendula R.da Silva Ramalho, A.L.Pinheiro & T.D.Penn.
Guarea persistens W.Palacios
Guarea polymera Little
Guarea pterorhachis Harms
Guarea pubescens (Rich.) A.Juss.
Guarea purusana C.DC.
Guarea pyriformis T.D.Penn.
Guarea reticulatovenosa T.D.Penn.
Guarea rhopalocarpa Radlk.
Guarea riparia W.Palacios
Guarea scabra A.Juss.
Guarea silvatica C.DC.
Guarea sphenophylla Urb.
Guarea sprucei C.DC.
Guarea subandina W.Palacios
Guarea subsessilifolia Al.Rodr.
Guarea tafae-malekui Al.Rodr.
Guarea talamancana Gómez-Laur. & Valerio
Guarea tonduzii C.DC.
Guarea trunciflora C.DC.
Guarea velutina A.Juss.
Guarea venenata T.D.Penn.
Guarea zarceroensis Coronado
Guarea zepivae T.D.Penn.


The timber is important; the African species are known as bossé, guarea, or pink mahogany, and the South American species as cramantee or American muskwood. It is said to possibly cause hallucinations if ingested.[3]

The bark of Guarea rusbyi (Britton) Rusby, a synonym of Guarea guidonia (L.) Sleumer,[4] is used as an expectorant[5] named cocillana.[6]
Corinthos sculpture in guarea wood by Barbara Hepworth at Tate Liverpool[7]

The wood can be used for sculpture and was favoured by the British 20th century sculptor Barbara Hepworth.[7]

Pennington, T. D.; Styles, B. T. (1975). "A Generic Monograph of the Meliaceae". Blumea. 22: 419–540.
"Guarea". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
"Scientists get dirt on mystery plant". STLtoday.com. 5 May 2009. Archived from the original on 16 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-07. {{cite web}}: External link in |publisher= (help)
"Guarea rusbyi". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 24 December 2017.
Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases[permanent dead link]
Ballard, C. W. (1922). "Histology of cocillana and substitute barks". Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 11 (10): 781–787. doi:10.1002/jps.3080111004.
"Corinthos 1954–5". UK: Tate Gallery. Retrieved 5 August 2015.

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