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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Celastrales

Familia: Celastraceae
Genus: Gymnosporia
Species: G. acuminata – G. addat – G. alaternifolia – G. albata – G. annobonensis – G. arborea – G. arbutifolia – G. arenicola – G. austroyunnanensis – G. bachmannii – G. bailadillana – G. berberoides – G. bonii – G. brachystachya – G. buchananii – G. buxifolia – G. capitata – G. cassinoides – G. championii – G. chasei – G. chevalieri – G. commiphoroides – G. confertiflora – G. cordata – G. cortii – G. crassifolia – G. crenata – G. cryptopetala – G. curtisii – G. deflexa – G. devenishii – G. dhofarensis – G. divaricata – G. diversifolia – G. dongfangensis – G. drummondii – G. dryandri – G. elliptica – G. emarginata – G. esquirolii – G. falconeri – G. forsskaoliana – G. fruticosa – G. gariepensis – G. gibsonii – G. glaucophylla – G. gracilipes – G. graciliramula – G. gracilis – G. grandifolia – G. guangnanensis – G. guangxiensis – G. gurueensis – G. hainanensis – G. harenensis – G. harlandii – G. harveyana – G. hemipterocarpa – G. heyneana – G. ilicina – G. inflata – G. jinyangensis – G. keniensis – G. laurina – G. leptopus – G. linearis – G. listeri – G. littoralis – G. livingstonei – G. lucida – G. macrocarpa – G. maranguensis – G. marcanii – G. markwardii – G. masindei – G. matoboensis – G. mekongensis – G. mengziensis – G. monococca – G. monodii – G. mossambicensis – G. nemorosa – G. nguruensis – G. nitida – G. nyassica – G. obbadiensis – G. oblanceolata – G. obovata – G. obscura – G. oleosa – G. orbiculata – G. ovata – G. oxycarpa – G. oxyphylla – G. palauica – G. pallida – G. parviflora – G. peduncularis – G. pertinax – G. polyacantha – G. procumbens – G. puberula – G. pubescens – G. punctata – G. putterlickioides – G. pyria – G. richardsiae – G. royleana – G. rubra – G. rufa – G. salicifolia – G. schliebenii – G. senegalensis – G. serrata – G. sikkimensis – G. somalensis – G. stylosa – G. swazica – G. szyszylowiczii – G. tenuispina – G. thompsonii – G. thomsonii – G. thyrsiflora – G. tiaoloshanensis – G. tonkinensis – G. undata – G. uniflora – G. vanwykii – G. variabilis – G. vitiensis – G. wallichiana – G. wightiana – G. woodii – G. yimenensis

Gymnosporia (Wight & Arn.) Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. Pl. [Bentham & Hooker f.] 1(1): 365. (1862) nom. et typ. cons.

Type species: Gymnosporia montana (Roth) Benth., Fl. Austral. 1: 400 (1863) nom. rej. vide Gymnosporia senegalensis (Lam.) Loes., Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3(5): 207 (1892); Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 17: 541. (1893) p.p. quoad typum


Celastrus sect. Gymnosporia Wight & Arn.
Schinzia Dennst., Schlüssel Hortus Malab. 31, no. 7. (1818), nom. inval.
Semarilla Raf., Sylva Tellur. 146 (1838)
Polyacanthus Presl, Bot. Bemerk. 33. (1844)
Encentrus Presl, Bot. Bemerk. 33. (1844)

Primary references

Bentham, G. & Hooker, J.D. 1862. Genera Plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis Kewensibus servata definita. Vol. 1, pars I., sistens Dicotyledonum Polypetalarum ordines LVI: [Ranunculaceas–Connaraceas.] Pp. I–XII, 1–454. A. Black, William Pamplin, Lovell Reeve & Co., Williams & Norgate, Londini [London]. BHL Reference page. : 365.

Additional references

Biral, L., Simmons, M.P., Smidt, E.C., Tembrock, L.R., Bolson, M., Archer, R.H. & Lombardi, J.A. 2017. Systematics of New World Maytenus (Celastraceae) and a New Delimitation of the Genus. Systematic Botany 42(4): 680-693. DOI: 10.1600/036364417X696456 Paywall. PDF Reference page.
Jordaan, M. & Van Wyk, A.E. 1999. Systematic studies in subfamily Celastroideae (Celastraceae) in southern Africa: reinstatement of the genus Gymnosporia. South African Journal of Botany 65(2): 177-181. DOI: 10.1016/S0254-6299(15)30958-3 Open access Reference page.


Hassler, M. 2019. Gymnosporia. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 October 02. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Gymnosporia in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 October 02. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Gymnosporia. Published online. Accessed: October 02 2019. 2019. Gymnosporia. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 October 02.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Gymnosporia in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 08-Apr-12.

Vernacular names
Afrikaans: Pendorings
English: Spike-thorns

Gymnosporia is an Old World genus of plants, that comprise suffrutices, shrubs and trees.[1] It was formerly considered congeneric with Maytenus, but more recent investigations separated it based on the presence of achyblasts (truncated branchlets) and spines, alternate leaves or fascicles of leaves, an inflorescence that forms a dichasium, mostly unisexual flowers, and fruit forming a dehiscent capsule, with an aril on the seed.[1] It is dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate plants.[2]

The genus occurs in all of Africa, Madagascar and adjacent islands, southern Spain, the Middle East, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, southern China, Taiwan, the Ryukyu Islands, Malesia, and in Queensland, Australia.[1] In the Afrotropical realm the two main centers of diversity are in the south and the northeast.

The genus includes some 114 species:[3]

Gymnosporia acuminata Hook.f. ex M.A.Lawson
Gymnosporia addat Loes.
Gymnosporia alaternifolia (Tul.) Loes.
Gymnosporia annobonensis Loes. & Mildbr.
Gymnosporia arbutifolia (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) Loes.
Gymnosporia arenicola Jordaan
Gymnosporia austroyunnanensis (S.J.Pei & Y.H.Li) M.P.Simmons
Gymnosporia bachmannii Loes.
Gymnosporia bailadillana V.Naray. & Mooney
Gymnosporia baumii Loes.
Gymnosporia benguelensis Loes.
Gymnosporia beniensis Robyns & Lawalrée
Gymnosporia berberoides W.W.Sm.
Gymnosporia bonii Pit.
Gymnosporia brevipetala Loes.
Gymnosporia buchananii Loes.
Gymnosporia buxifolia (L.) Szyszyl.
Gymnosporia buxifolioides Loes.
Gymnosporia capitata (E.Mey. ex Sond.) Loes.
Gymnosporia cassinoides (L'Hér.) Masf.
Gymnosporia chevalieri Tardieu
Gymnosporia commiphoroides H.Perrier
Gymnosporia confertiflora (J.Y.Luo & X.X.Chen) M.P.Simmons
Gymnosporia cortii Pic.Serm.
Gymnosporia crataegina Baker
Gymnosporia crenata (G.Forst.) Seem.
Gymnosporia cryptopetala Reyes-Bet. & A.Santos
Gymnosporia devenishii Jordaan
Gymnosporia dhofarensis (Sebsebe) Jordaan
Gymnosporia divaricata Baker
Gymnosporia diversifolia Maxim.
Gymnosporia dongfangensis (F.W.Xing & X.S.Qin) M.P.Simmons
Gymnosporia drummondii (N.Robson & Sebsebe) Jordaan
Gymnosporia dryandri (Lowe) Masf.
Gymnosporia elliptica (Thunb.) Schönland
Gymnosporia emarginata (Willd.) Thwaites
Gymnosporia engleriana Loes.
Gymnosporia esquirolii (H.Lév.) H.Lév.
Gymnosporia falconeri M.A.Lawson
Gymnosporia forsskaoliana (Sebsebe) Jordaan
Gymnosporia fruticosa (Thwaites) Thwaites
Gymnosporia gariepensis Jordaan
Gymnosporia glaucophylla Jordaan
Gymnosporia gracilipes (Welw. ex Oliv.) Loes.
Gymnosporia gracilis Loes.
Gymnosporia grandifolia (Davison) Jordaan
Gymnosporia grossulariae (Tul.) Loes.
Gymnosporia guangxiensis (C.Y.Cheng & W.L.Sha) M.P.Simmons
Gymnosporia gurueensis (N.Robson) Jordaan
Gymnosporia hainanensis Merr. & Chun
Gymnosporia harenensis (Sebsebe) Jordaan
Gymnosporia harlandii Hance
Gymnosporia harveyana Loes.
Gymnosporia hemipterocarpa Jordaan
Gymnosporia heterophylla (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Loes.
Gymnosporia heyneana (Roth) M.A.Lawson
Gymnosporia integrifolia (L.f.) Glover
Gymnosporia intermedia Chiov.
Gymnosporia jinyangensis (C.Y.Chang) Q.R.Liu & Funston
Gymnosporia keniensis (Loes.) Jordaan
Gymnosporia leptopus (Tul.) Baker
Gymnosporia linearis (L.f.) Loes.
Gymnosporia littoralis (Backer) Jordaan
Gymnosporia livingstonei Jordaan
Gymnosporia macrocarpa Jordaan
Gymnosporia maranguensis (Loes.) Loes.
Gymnosporia marcanii Craib
Gymnosporia markwardii Jordaan
Gymnosporia masindei (Gereau) Jordaan
Gymnosporia matoboensis Jordaan
Gymnosporia montana (Roth) Benth.
Gymnosporia mossambicensis (Klotzsch) Loes.
Gymnosporia neglecta M.A.Lawson
Gymnosporia nemorosa (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Szyszyl.
Gymnosporia nguruensis (N.Robson & Sebsebe) Jordaan
Gymnosporia nitida Merr.
Gymnosporia obbiadensis Chiov.
Gymnosporia obscura (A.Rich.) Loes.
Gymnosporia orbiculata (C.Y.Wu ex S.J.Pei & Y.H.Li) Q.R.Liu &
Gymnosporia ovata (Wall. ex Wight & Arn.) M.A.Lawson
Gymnosporia oxycarpa (N.Robson) Jordaan
Gymnosporia pallida Collett & Hemsl.
Gymnosporia parviflora (Vahl) Chiov.
Gymnosporia pertinax (N.Hallé & J.Florence) M.P.Simmons
Gymnosporia polyacanthus Szyszyl.
Gymnosporia puberula M.A.Lawson
Gymnosporia pubescens (N.Robson) Jordaan
Gymnosporia punctata (Sebsebe) Jordaan
Gymnosporia putterlickioides Loes.
Gymnosporia pyria (Willemet) Jordaan
Gymnosporia richardsiae (N.Robson & Sebsebe) Jordaan
Gymnosporia rothiana (Walp.) M.A.Lawson
Gymnosporia royleana Wall. ex M.A.Lawson
Gymnosporia rubra (Harv.) Loes.
Gymnosporia rufa (Wall.) Hook.f.
Gymnosporia salicifolia M.A.Lawson
Gymnosporia schliebenii Jordaan
Gymnosporia senegalensis (Lam.) Loes.
Gymnosporia serrata (Hochst. ex A.Rich.) Loes.
Gymnosporia sikkimensis Prain
Gymnosporia somalensis Loes.
Gymnosporia spinosa (Blanco) Merr. & Rolfe
Gymnosporia stylosa Pierre
Gymnosporia swazica Jordaan
Gymnosporia tenuispina (Sond.) Szyszyl.
Gymnosporia thompsonii Merr.
Gymnosporia thomsonii Kurz
Gymnosporia thyrsiflora (S.J.Pei & Y.H.Li) W.B.Yu & D.Z.Li
Gymnosporia tiaoloshanensis Chun & F.C.How
Gymnosporia trilocularis Hayata
Gymnosporia uniflora Davison
Gymnosporia vanwykii (R.H.Archer) Jordaan
Gymnosporia variabilis (Hemsl.) Loes.
Gymnosporia wallichiana (Spreng.) M.A.Lawson
Gymnosporia woodii Szyszyl.


Marie Prins; van Wyk, A. E. (2003). "Reinstatement of Gymnosporia (Celastraceae): implications for the Flora Malesiana region". Telopea. 10 (1): 155–167. doi:10.7751/telopea20035612.
Jordaan, Marie; Van Wyk, Abraham E. (2006). "Sectional Classification of Gymnosporia (Celastraceae), with Notes on the Nomenclatural and Taxonomic History of the Genus". Taxon. 55 (2): 515–525. doi:10.2307/25065602. JSTOR 25065602.
"Gymnosporia". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanical Gardens Kew. Retrieved 2018-11-27.

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