Fine Art

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Ordo: Ericales

Familia: Styracaceae
Genus: Halesia
Species: H. carolina – H. diptera – H. tetraptera – †H. mosbruggeri

Halesia (J.Ellis) ex L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 1044. 1759. nom. cons.

Carlomohria Greene
Hillia Boehmer
Mohria Britton nom illeg. nom. superfl. (non Sw.)
Mohrodendron Britton

Infrageneric taxa

Halesia carolina L.
Halesia carolina f. dialypetala (Rehd.) C.K.Schneid.
Halesia carolina subsp. monticola (Rehd.) E.Murray
Halesia carolina subsp. parviflora (Michx.) E.Murray
Halesia carolina var. mollis (Lange) Perkins
Halesia carolina var. monticola Rehd.
Halesia carolina var. parviflora (Michx.) E.Murray
Halesia corymbosa (Siebold et Zucc.) G.Nicholson
Halesia diptera L.
Halesia diptera var. magniflora Godfrey
Halesia fortunei Hemsley
Halesia hispida (Sieb. & Zucc.) N.E.Br.
Halesia macgregorii Chun
Halesia macgregorii var. crenata Chun.
Halesia meehanii Meehan
Halesia monticola Sargent
Halesia monticola var. vestita Sargent
Halesia obassia (Sieb. & Zucc.) Lavallee
Halesia parviflora Michx.
Halesia parviflora Lindl. nom. illeg.
Halesia reticulata Buckl.
Halesia stenocarpa K.Koch
Halesia ternata Blanco
Halesia tetrapetala f. dialypetala Rehd.
Halesia tetraptera J.Ellis
Halesia tetraptera L.
Halesia tetraptera f. dialypetala Rehd. nom. illeg.
Halesia tetraptera f. stenocarpa (K.Koch) Voss
Halesia tetraptera var. carnea Mouill. nom. illeg.
Halesia tetraptera var. glabrescens Lange
Halesia tetraptera var. grandifolia Lavallée
Halesia tetraptera var. laevigata Perkins nom. illeg.
Halesia tetraptera var. meehanii Sarg. nom. illeg.
Halesia tetraptera var. monticola (Rehd.) J.L.Reveal & M.J.Seldin
Halesia tetraptera var. parviflora (Michx.) Schelle


USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Halesia in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 10 May 2009.

Vernacular names
suomi: Vitikellopuut
հայերեն: Արծաթազանգ

Halesia, also known as silverbell or snowdrop tree, is a small genus of four or five species of deciduous large shrubs or small trees in the family Styracaceae.


They are native to eastern Asia (southeast China) and eastern North America (southern Ontario, Canada south through Florida and eastern Texas, United States).

They grow to 5–20 m (16–66 ft) tall (rarely to 39 m (128 ft)), and have alternate, simple ovate leaves 5–16 cm long and 3–8 cm broad. The flowers are pendulous, white or pale pink, produced in open clusters of 2–6 flowers, each flower being 1–3 cm long. The fruit is a distinctive, oblong dry drupe 2–4 cm long. All species except H. diptera have four narrow longitudinal ribs or wings on fruit; diptera only has two, making it the most distinctive of the group.

Halesia carolina L.; little silverbell – eastern North America (syn. H. parviflora Michx. or H. tetraptera var. parviflora (Michx.) Schelle)[1]
Halesia diptera Ellis; two-wing silverbell – southeastern North America
Halesia macgregorii Chun; Chinese silverbell or Macgregor's silverbell – eastern China
Halesia tetraptera L.; common silverbell – eastern North America;
which includes a variety treated by some as a full species:
Halesia monticola (Rehd.) Sarg.; mountain silverbell – southern Appalachians and southwards (syn. H. carolina var. monticola Rehder; H. carolina subsp. monticola (Rehder) A.E.Murray; H. tetraptera var. monticola (Rehder) Reveal & Seldin)cf. [2]

Halesia monticola is the largest of the genus, with specimens up to 39 m (128 ft) tall known in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in North Carolina; the second-largest is H. macgregorii, reaching 24 m (79 ft) in China. The others rarely exceed 10 m (33 ft) tall. H. monticola is considered by some to be a subspecies of H. carolina (aka H. tetraptera).[3] However, there appears to be a consistent size difference between the two taxa.

The taxonomy and naming of the American species is confused and extensively disputed. The first dispute is over the exact identity of the specimen first named by Linnaeus as H. carolina; some contend that it is the same as H. parviflora,[4][5][6] while others say it is the same as H. tetraptera.[7][8][9] The second dispute is over whether H. monticola is sufficiently distinct from the other species to merit specific recognition or not (with its varietal placing depending on the above question, too). Neither question has yet been conclusively answered. The treatment here includes both H. carolina (small) and H. monticola (large).

A phylogenetic study suggests that Halesia is not monophyletic and as a result, the Chinese species Halesia macgregorii has been transferred into a new genus Perkinsiodendron, named after American botanist and Styracaceae expert Janet Russell Perkins.[10]

The genus was named after Stephen Hales by John Ellis, publishing the name in the tenth edition of Linnaeus's Systema Naturae in 1759. The name is conserved as the same name had been used in an obscure earlier publication in 1756 for a different plant.[5]
Fossil record

One fossil endocarp of †Halesia crassa has been described from a middle Miocene stratum of the Fasterholt area near Silkeborg in Central Jutland, Denmark.[11]
Cultivation and uses

Silverbells are popular ornamental plants in large gardens, grown for their delicate pendulous flowers in late spring.

"Halesia carolina L." The Plant List (2013). Version 1.1. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
"Halesia tetraptera var. monticola (Rehder) Reveal & Seldin". The Plant List (2013). Version 1.1. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
"Classification – USDA PLANTS".
Reveal, J. L., & Seldin, M. J. (1976). On the Identity of Halesia carolina L. (Styracaceae). Taxon 25 (1): 123–140. Abstract
Germplasm Resources Information Network: Halesia Archived 2008-09-17 at the Wayback Machine
USDA Plants Profile: Halesia
Fritsch, P. W. & Lucas, S. D. (2000). Clinal Variation in the Halesia carolina Complex (Styracaceae). Systematic Botany 25 (2): 197–210. Abstract
Florida Institute for Systematic Botany: Halesia carolina
Sluder, Earl R. (1990). "Halesia carolina". In Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H. (eds.). Hardwoods. Silvics of North America. Washington, D.C.: United States Forest Service (USFS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 2 – via Southern Research Station (
Fritsch, Peter; Yao, Xiaohong; Simison, W.; Cruz, B.C.; Chen, Tao (2016-07-18). "Perkinsiodendron, a new genus in the styracaceae based on morphology and DNA sequences". 10: 109–117.
Angiosperm Fruits and Seeds from the Middle Miocene of Jutland (Denmark) by Else Marie Friis, The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters 24:3, 1985

Plants, Fine Art Prints

Plants Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from ""
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World