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Halocnemum strobilaceum

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Caryophyllales

Familia: Amaranthaceae s.l.
Cladus: Chenopodiaceae s.str.
Subfamilia: Salicornioideae
Tribus: Salicornieae
Genus: Halocnemum
Species: Halocnemum strobilaceum

Halocnemum strobilaceum (Pall.) M.Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 3: 3. (1819)

Salicornia strobilacea Pall., Reise Russ. Reich. 1: 481. (1771)
Type: Northern Caspian area: "Proceriorem (Halostachys caspica) et Salicorniae caspicae subparem versus mare cum eadem promiscue crescentem inven." Anonymous - 4. Isotype: MO.
Halopeplis strobilacea (Pall.) Ces., Pass. & Gibelli, Comp. Fl. Ital. [Cesati] 2(12): 271. (1874)
Sarcathria strobilacea Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 47. (1837) [1836 publ. Nov-Dec 1837]
Heterotypic ref. Uotila (but he accepts the homotypic synonym Halopeplis perfoliata):
Halostachys perfoliata (Forssk.) Moq., Prodr. [A. P. de Candolle] 13(2): 148. (1849), ex parte

Native distribution areas:

Southwestern Europe
Southeastern Europe
Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, [Sardinia, Sicily] Romania
Eastern Europe
Russian Federation-European part, [European part] Ukraine (incl. Krym)
Northern Africa
Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia
Russian Federation (Chelyabinsk, Novosibirsk, Omsk)
Middle Asia
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia [Ciscaucasia]
Western Asia
Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Cyprus, Egypt, [Sinai], Lebanon, Syria
Arabian Peninsula
Gansu (n.w.), Xinjiang
Indian Subcontinent

Note: Guarino & Bacchetta 2012 separate the mediterranean plants as Halocnemum cruciatum

Βιότοπος Στροφυλιάς 07

Halocnemum strobilaceum. Prokopos Lagoon, Western Achaia, Greece,itzerland.html">Switzerland.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Cesati, V., Passerini, G. & Gibelli, G. 1874. Compendio della Flora Italiana Compilato per cura dei Professori V. Cesati, G. Passerini e G. Gibelli. Vol. 2. Fasc. 12: p. 257–280. Fasc. 13: p. 281–304. Fasc. 14: 305–320. Milano: F. Vallardi. Reference page. : 271
Bieberstein, F.A.M.v. 1819. Flora Taurico-Caucasica. Tomus 3. Supplementum, continens plantas phaenogamas, per Tauriam utque Caucasum, post edita priore volumine detectas, et in pristinas animadversiones. 655 pp., Charkouiae [Kharkov], Typis Academicis. BHL Reference page. 3
Moquin-Tandon, A. 1849. Salsolaceae. In: De Candolle, A.P. (ed.): Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis 13(2): 41–219. Masson, Paris. BHL Reference page. : 148
Pallas, P.S. 1771. Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des russischen Reichs. Erster Theil. Pp. [1–12], 1–504, Tab. I–XI [= 1–11], Tab. A–L. St. Petersburg. Kayserliche Academie der Wissenschaften. (Online) Reference page. : 481.
Rafinesque-Schmaltz, C.S. 1837 ["1836"]. Flora Telluriana. Pars Tertia. 100 pp. Philadelphia, H. Probasco. BHL Reference page. : 47

Additional references

Zhu, G., Mosyakin, S.L. & Clemants, S.E.:
'eFloras 2008. Halocnemum strobilaceum in Flora of China. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Hedge, I.C. 1997. Halocnemum strobilaceum. In:
Hedge, I.C., Akhani, H., Freitag, H., Kothe-Heinrich, G., Podlech, D., Rilke, S. & Uotila, P. 1997. Chenopodiaceae. In: Rechinger, K.H. (ed.): Flora Iranica Vol. 172. 371 pp., 212 tab., Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt Graz. Reference page. : 126–128.
Freitag, H., Hedge, I.C, Jafri, S.M.H, Kothe-Heinrich, G., Omer, S. & Uotila, P. 2001. Chenopodiaceae. In: Ali, S.I. (ed.): Flora of Pakistan 204. 217 pp., Department of Botany/Missouri Botanical Press, Karachi/St. Louis, ISBN 1-930723-10-5 eFloras. Reference page. : Halocnemum strobilaceum
Uotila, P. 2011. Chenopodiaceae (pro parte majore). Halocnemum strobilaceum In: Euro+Med Plantbase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity.


Hassler, M. 2018. Halocnemum strobilaceum. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Dec. 18. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2016. Halocnemum strobilaceum. Published online. Accessed: Jul. 07 2016.
The Plant List 2013. Halocnemum strobilaceum in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2016 Jul. 07. 2016. Halocnemum strobilaceum. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 07 Jul. 2016.

Vernacular names
español: Salado
فارسی: شور باتلاقی
հայերեն: Աղապատուկ
italiano: Salicornia strobilacea
русский: Сарсаза́н шишкова́тый
sardu: Sossoìni
Türkçe: Çuvan
中文: 盐节木

Halocnemum strobilaceum is a species of flowering plant in the subfamily Salicornioideae of the family Amaranthaceae. It is native to coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea and parts of the Middle East and central Asia, where it grows in coastal and inland salt marshes, alkali flats, and other habitats with saline soils.


Halocnemum strobilaceum is a much-branched, semi-prostrate, sub-shrub with erect branches up to a metre or so high. The woody stems at the base are jointed and have sterile, rounded or conical shaped buds, arranged in whorls on the terminal part of each portion. The erect stems are cylindrical and succulent, with green joints that turn yellow as they age. The stubby, bluish-green, scale-like leaves clasp the stem at each node. The flowers are hermaphrodite and very small, and are arranged in whorls of three on the upper part of the branches.[1]
Distribution and habitat

Halocnemum strobilaceum is found around the coasts bordering on the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. It is also present in the Middle East and central Asia as far east as Mongolia and China. In Iran and Pakistan, it grows in the muddy coastal swamps immediately inland from the mangroves (Avicennia marina) that border the coast of the Persian Gulf.[2] In the delta region of the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, it dominates some plant communities in the salt marsh habitats.[3] In Abu Dhabi it grows in lagoons with muddy substrates in association with Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, and along the storm ridges of shelly sand that form higher up the beach. Gelatinous crusts of cyanobacteria sometimes form in depressions in the ground, and when these get dusted with windblown sand, H. strobilaceum colonises these habitats too.[4] It grows along the sandy Tunisian coast, forming hummocks, growing alongside Bassia muricata, Cutandia memphitica and Traganum nudatum.[5]

In northwestern China in the provinces of Xinjiang and Gansu, it is one of the dominant plants on saline plains, on the shores of salt lakes and at the edges of alluvial fans.[6] Along with glasswort and A. macrostachyum, H. strobilaceum was one of the first plants to recolonise oil-polluted marshland in the Persian Gulf after the soil had been churned up and aerated by the action of crabs.[7]


Grigore, Marius-Nicusor; Ivanescu, Lacramioara; Toma, Constantin (2014). Halophytes: An Integrative Anatomical Study. Springer. pp. 175–177. ISBN 978-3-319-05729-3.
Ahmad, R.; Malik, K.A. (2013). Prospects for Saline Agriculture. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 353–363. ISBN 978-94-017-0067-2.
Zahran, M.A.; El-Demerdash, M.A.; Mashaly, I.A. (1990). "Vegetation types of the deltaic Mediterranean coast of Egypt and their environment". Journal of Vegetation Science. 1 (3): 305–310. doi:10.2307/3235705. JSTOR 3235705.
Khan, M. Ajmal; Böer, Benno; Kust, German S.; Barth, Hans-Jörg (2008). Sabkha Ecosystems: Volume II: West and Central Asia. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-4020-5072-5.
R. H. Hughes A Directory of African Wetlands, p. 5, at Google Books
Xiao-Xia Qu; Zhen-Ying Huang; Jerry M. Baskin; Carol C. Baskin (2007). "Effect of Temperature, Light and Salinity on Seed Germination and Radicle Growth of the Geographically Widespread Halophyte Shrub Halocnemum strobilaceum". Annals of Botany. 101 (2): 293–299. doi:10.1093/aob/mcm047. PMC 2711011. PMID 17428834.
Abdulaziz H. Abuzinada; Hans-Jörg Barth; Friedhelm Krupp; Benno Böer Thabit; Zahran Al Abdessalaam (2008). Protecting the Gulf's Marine Ecosystems from Pollution. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 270. ISBN 978-3-7643-7947-6.

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