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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Caryophyllales

Familia: Amaranthaceae s.l.
Cladus: Chenopodiaceae s.str.
Subfamilia: Salicornioideae
Tribus: Salicornieae
Genus: Halostachys

Species: H. belangeriana

Names in synonymy: H. caspica – H. nodulosa – H. occidentalis – H. patagonica – H. perfoliata – H. ritteriana – H. songarica


Halostachys C.A.Mey. ex Schrenk, Bull. Cl. Phys.-Math. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg 1: 361. (1843)

Lectotype (proposed by Piirainen 2015): Halostachys caspica (M.Bieb.) C.A.Mey. ex Schrenk (Halocnemum caspicum M.Bieb.) (typ. cons. 2018). ( = Halostachys belangeriana).

Native distribution areas:

Eastern Europe
E-European Russia
Middle Asia
Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan
Azerbaijan, Georgia [Caucasus], Northern Caucasus, Armenia
Western Asia
Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey
Xinjiang, Gansu
Indian Subcontinent

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Schrenk, A.G.v. 1843. Chenopodiaceae staticesque novae vel nondum descriptae, quas in itinere ad fluvium Tschu versus legit Alexander Schrenk. Bulletin de la Classe Physico-Mathématique de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg 1: 360–362. BHL Reference page. : 361
Piirainen, M. 2015. (2353) Proposal to conserve the name Halostachys (Chenopodiaceae s.str.; Amaranthaceae sensu APG: Salicornioideae) with a conserved type. Taxon 64(2): 386–387. [1] Reference page.

Additional references

Kadereit, G., Mucina, L. & Freitag, H. 2006: Phylogeny of Salicornioideae (Chenopodiaceae): Diversification, Biogeography, and Evolutionary Trends in Leaf and Flower Morphology. Taxon 55(3): 617–642. DOI: 10.2307/25065639.Reference page.
Zhu, G., Mosyakin, S.L. & Clemants, S.E.:
'eFloras 2008. Halostachys in Flora of China. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Hedge, I.C. 1997. Halostachys. In:
Hedge, I.C., Akhani, H., Freitag, H., Kothe-Heinrich, G., Podlech, D., Rilke, S. & Uotila, P. 1997. Chenopodiaceae. In: Rechinger, K.H. (ed.): Flora Iranica Vol. 172. 371 pp., 212 tab., Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt Graz. Reference page. : 125–126.
Freitag, H., Hedge, I.C, Jafri, S.M.H, Kothe-Heinrich, G., Omer, S. & Uotila, P. 2001. Chenopodiaceae. In: Ali, S.I. (ed.): Flora of Pakistan 204. 217 pp., Department of Botany/Missouri Botanical Press, Karachi/St. Louis, ISBN 1-930723-10-5 eFloras. Reference page. : Halostachys.
Piirainen, M. 2009: Halostachys. – In: Uotila, P. (ed.): Chenopodiaceae. Euro+Med Plantbase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity.


Hassler, M. 2019. Halostachys. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Jan. 03. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2016. Halostachys. Published online. Accessed: Jul. 07 2016.
The Plant List 2013. Halostachys in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2016 Jul. 07. 2016. Halostachys. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 07 Jul. 2016.

Vernacular names
қазақша: Қарабарақ
русский: Соляноколосник
中文: 盐穗木属

Halostachys is a genus of flowering plants in the plant family Amaranthaceae, containing a single species, Halostachys belangeriana. The plants are small to medium halophytic shrubs with apparently jointed fleshy stems and scale-like leaves. They are native to Asia and southeastern Europe.


Halostachys growths as a shrub to 1–3 m height and width. The erect stems are much branched, older twigs are mostly leafless. The young twigs are blue-green, fleshy, apparently jointed (articulated), with glabrous fine papillose surface. The opposite leaves are fleshy, glabrous, connate basally and surrounding the stem (thus forming the joints), with very short scale-like triangular blades.[2][1][3]

The inflorescences consist of numerous opposite lateral cylindrical spikes, 15-30 × 2–5 mm, on jointed peduncles. Groups of three bisexual flowers are sitting in the axils of rhombic-quadrate bracts.[2] The opposite bracts are not connate to each other.[4] The obovoid to obpyramidal perianth consists of three connate tepals, the apex with three incurved lobes. There is one stamen exserting the flower. The ovoid ovary bears two subulate papillate stigmas. The flowering and fruiting phase reaches from July to November.[2][1][3]

The fruit is enclosed by the fleshy, somewhat inflated, three-angled, shiny perianth. The fruit wall (pericarp) is membranous. The erect seed is oblong and red-brown, containing the half-annular embryo and copious perisperm (feeding tissue).[2][1][3]
Distribution and habitat

The distribution area of Halostachys belangeriana reaches from Southeast Europe, Caucasus (Russia, Armenia, eastern Turkey), Southwest Asia (northern Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan), Central Asia (Turkmenistan, Mongolia) to Xinjiang and western Gansu (China).[2][1][3]

The plants are halophytes and grow in salt marshes, salty and alkaline mudflats, salty ditches, in dry river beds,[2] and along the shores of salt lakes.[3]

The genus Halostachys was first published in 1843 by Alexander von Schrenk.[5] At that time, the genus comprised three species (Halostachys caspica, Halostachys nodulosa, and Halostachys songarica). The name had been introduced by Carl Anton von Meyer in 1838 (as "Halostachys caspia"), but without giving a genus description. In 1874, Halostachys songarica was chosen as the lectotype of the genus. But this was problematic, as in 1866 Halostachys songarica and H. nodulosa had been transferred to the genus Halopeplis by Franz Ungern-Sternberg. Mikko Piirainen (2015) proposed to conserve the name Halostachys with the conserved type Halostachys caspica,[6] (which is a synonym of Halostachys belangeriana).[7]

Today Halostachys includes just one species, Halostachys belangeriana (Moq.) Botsch.. Sometimes the name Halostachys caspica is used, too.[3][8][9] The earliest description of this species was made in 1771 by Peter Simon Pallas as Salicornia caspica Pall., but this name is illegitimate (as Salicornia caspica L. existed already since 1753). The synonyms Halocnemum caspicum (Pall.) M.Bieb., Halostachys caspia (Pall.) C.A.Mey. (nom. inval.), Halostachys caspica (Pall.) C.A.Mey. ex Schrenk, and Arthrocnemum caspicum (Pall.) Moq. (p.p., nom. confus.) are all based on this illegitimate name.[1]

Phylogenetic research confirmed, that Halostachys is closely related to the genus Halocnemum.[4]

Halostachys belangeriana grows under extreme ecological conditions, and is a good fodder plant for the sustainable development on salty soils. The best fodder quality is achieved during the flowering phase.[9] Economically important phytochemicals are flavonoids with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.[8]

Ian Charleson Hedge: Halostachys belangeriana. In: Helmut Freitag et al.: Chenopodiaceae. In: Flora of Pakistan, Volume 204 - Missouri Botanical Garden Press & University of Karachi. 2001, ISBN 1930723105
Ian Charleson Hedge: Halostachys belangeriana. In: Karl Heinz Rechinger et al. (eds.): Flora Iranica, Band 172, Chenopodiaceae, Akad. Druck, Graz 1997, ISBN 3-201-00728-5, p. 125-126.
Gelin Zhu, Sergei L. Mosyakin & Steven E. Clemants (2004). "Halostachys caspica". In Flora of China Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of China online. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
Gudrun Kadereit, Ladislav Mucina, Helmut Freitag: Phylogeny of Salicornioideae (Chenopodiaceae): diversification, biogeography, and evolutionary trends in leaf and flower morphology, In: Taxon, Volume 55 , Issue 3, 2006, p. 630-632.
Alexander von Schrenk: Chenopodiaceae staticesque novae vel nondum descriptae quas in itinere ad fluvium Tschu versus legit Alexander Schrenk. In: Bulletin de la Classe Physico-Mathématique de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint-Pétersbourg 1, 1843, p. 361. first publication of Halostachys scanned at
Mikko Piirainen: Proposal to conserve the name Halostachys (Chenopodiaceae s.str.; Amaranthaceae sensu APG: Salicornioideae) with a conserved type. In: Taxon 64, Issue 2, 2015, p. 386–387.
Mikko Piirainen 2009: Halostachys belangeriana. In: P. Uotila, (ed.): Chenopodiaceae. In: Euro+Med Plantbase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity.
Hao Liu, Yan Mou, Jianglin Zhao, Jihua Wang, Ligang Zhou, Mingan Wang, Daoquan Wang, Jianguo Han, Zhu Yu, Fuyu Yang: Flavonoids from Halostachys caspica and their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. In: Molecules 15, 2010, p. 7933-7945. doi:10.3390/molecules15117933
B. Rasuoli, B. Amiri, M.H. Assareh, M. Jafari: Nutritional value of a halophyte species, Halostachys caspica in three different phaenological stages and three different sites. In: Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, Volume 18, Number 1 (42), 2011, p. 32-41.

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