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Heliotropium europaeum

Heliotropium europaeum (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Boraginales

Familia: Boraginaceae
Subfamilia: Heliotropioideae
Genus: Heliotropium
Species: Heliotropium europaeum

Heliotropium europaeum L., 1753

Heliotropium album St.-Lag.
Heliotropium canescens Moench
Heliotropium carduchorum K.Koch
Heliotropium commutatum Schult.
Heliotropium dioscoridis Bubani
Heliotropium erectum Lam.
Heliotropium glandulosum R.Br.
Heliotropium gymnocarpum Borbás
Heliotropium humile Salisb.
Heliotropium lacunarium F.Muell.
Heliotropium majus Garsault
Heliotropium oblongifolium Hornem.
Heliotropium subcanescens Steven
Heliotropium tenuiflorum Guss.
Heliotropium vulgare Gaterau

Native distribution areas:

Continental: Eurasia
Afghanistan, Albania, Austria, Baleares, Bulgaria, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, East Aegean Is., France, Germany, Greece, Gulf States, Hungary, India, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, South European Russia, Spain, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Yemen, Yugoslavia
Continental: Africa
Regional: Northern Africa
Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia
Regional: Macaronesia
Azores, Canary Is., Madeira
Introduced into:
Alabama, Cape Provinces, China North-Central, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Illinois, New York, Xinjiang

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species plantarum, exhibentes plantas rite cognitas, ad genera relatas, cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum systema sexuale digestas. Tomus I. Pp. [I–XII], 1–560. Impensis Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae [Stockholm]. BHL Reference page. : 130.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Heliotropium europaeum in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2020 Oct 14. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Heliotropium europaeum. Published online. Accessed: Oct 14 2020. 2020. Heliotropium europaeum. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 14 Oct 2020.
Catalogue of Life: 2021 Annual Checklist
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Heliotropium europaeum in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Europäische Sonnenwende
suomi: Rikkaheliotrooppi
français: Héliotrope d'Europe

Heliotropium europaeum is a species of heliotrope known by the common names European heliotrope[1] and European turn-sole.[2] It is native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa, but it is widely naturalized elsewhere, such as in Australia and North America. It grows as a roadside weed in some places. This is an annual herb growing from a taproot and reaching maximum heights near 40 centimeters. The stem and oval-shaped leaves are covered in soft hairs. The inflorescences are coiled spikes of white flowers with fuzzy or bristly sepals. Each flower is just a few millimeters wide. The fruit is a bumpy nutlet.

Heliotropium europaeum contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids and is poisonous.[3]

USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Heliotropium europaeum". The PLANTS Database ( Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
The MERCK Veterinary Manual, Table 5 Archived 2010-11-17 at the Wayback Machine

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