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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Malpighiales

Familia: Euphorbiaceae
Subfamilia: Euphorbioideae
Tribus: Hippomaneae
Subtribus: Hippomaninae
Genus: Hippomane
Species: H. horrida – H. mancinella – H. spinosa

Hippomane L., 1753

Mancanilla Plum. ex Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 354 (1763).
Mancinella Tussac, Fl. Antill. 3: 21 (1824).

Native distribution areas:

Continental: SE. U.S.A., Mexico to Trop. America

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species plantarum, exhibentes plantas rite cognitas, ad genera relatas, cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum systema sexuale digestas. Tomus II. Pp. 561–1200, [1–30, index], [1, err.]. Impensis Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae [Stockholm]. BHL Reference page. : 1191


Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Hippomane in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Jul 15. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Hippomane. Published online. Accessed: Jul 15 2020.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Hippomane in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Jul 15. Reference page. 2020. Hippomane. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Jul 15.

Vernacular names

Hippomane is a genus of plants in the Euphorbiaceae described by Linnaeus in 1753.[2][4] It is native to the West Indies, Central America, Mexico, Florida, Venezuela, Colombia, and Galápagos.[3][5][6][7][8][9]

Derivation of name

The name of the genus references the Greek name hippomanes (applied by Theophrastus to an unidentified plant said to poison horses, sending them mad) - this being a compound of the Greek elements ἵππος (= (h)ippos) horse and μανία (= mania) insanity / frenzy - hence "sending horses insane".[10]

Accepted Species[3]

Hippomane horrida Urb. & Ekman. - Barahona in Dominican Rep
Hippomane mancinella L. - West Indies, Mexico, Central America, Florida Keys, Venezuela, Colombia, Galápagos
Hippomane spinosa L. - Hispaniola

Species formerly included[3]

moved to other genera: Sapium

Hippomane aucuparia - Sapium glandulosum
Hippomane biglandulosa - Sapium glandulosum
Hippomane fruticosa - Sapium glandulosum
Hippomane glandulosa - Sapium glandulosum
Hippomane zeocca - Sapium glandulosum


lectotype designated by M. L. Green, Prop. Brit. Bot. 195 (1929)
Tropicos, Hippomane L.
Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 1191-1192 in Latin
Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
González Ramírez, J. 2010. Euphorbiaceae. En: Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Vol. 5. B.E. Hammel, M.H. Grayum, C. Herrera & N. Zamora (eds.). Monographs in systematic botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 290–394.
Martínez Gordillo, M., J. J. Ramírez, R. C. Durán, E. J. Arriaga, R. García, A. Cervantes & R. M. Hernández. 2002. Los géneros de la familia Euphorbiaceae en México. Anales del Instituto de Biología de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Botánica 73(2): 155–281.
Webster, G. L. & M.J. Huft. 1988. Revised synopsis of Panamanian Euphorbiaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 75(3): 1087–1144.
Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution map
Quattrocchi, Umberto (2012). CRC World dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms and etymology. CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group. ISBN 978-1-4398-9445-3 Volume III E-L pps. 484-5.

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