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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Cladus: Commelinids
Ordo: Poales

Familia: Poaceae
Subfamilia: Pooideae
Tribus: Hordeeae
Subtribus: Hordeinae
Genus: Hordeum
Species: H. aegiceras – H. arizonicum – H. bogdanii – H. brachyantherum – H. brachyatherum – H. brevisubulatum – H. bulbosum – H. californicum – H. capense – H. chilense – H. comosum – H. cordobense – H. depressum – H. distichon – H. erectifolium – H. euclaston – H. flexuosum – H. fuegianum – H. guatemalense – H. halophilum – H. jubatum – H. lechleri – H. marinum – H. murinum – H. muticum – H. parodii – H. patagonicum – H. procerum – H. pubiflorum – H. pusillum – H. roshevitzii – H. secalinum – H. spontaneum – H. stenostachys – H. tetraploidum – H. vulgare
Nothospecies: H. × jungblutii – H. × lagunculciforme – H. × pavisii

Hordeum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 84. (1753)

Type species: Hordeum vulgare L., Sp. Pl. 1: 84. (1753)


Zeocriton Wolf, Gen. Pl.: 21. (1781)
Critesion Raf., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts 89: 103. (1819)
Critho E.Mey., Index Seminum (Regiom.) 1848: 5. (1848)


Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 84.
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards) GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. Hordeum. Published online. Accessed 24 Sept. 2013.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Hordeum in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Sept. 21. Reference page. 2013. Hordeum. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Sept. 21.
International Plant Names Index. 2013. Hordeum. Published online. Accessed: 21. Sept. 2013.
USDA: GRIN Taxonomy for Plants[1] (23 March 2006)
Global Biodiversity Information Facility. 2019. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset. Taxon: Hordeum. .

Vernacular names
беларуская: Ячмень
English: Barley
suomi: Ohrat
Nordfriisk: Bere
Gàidhlig: eòrna
magyar: Árpa
日本語: オオムギ属
македонски: Јачмен
Türkçe: Arpa
中文(简体): 大麦属
中文(繁體): 大麥屬

Hordeum is a genus of annual and perennial plants in the grass family. They are native throughout the temperate regions of Africa, Eurasia, and the Americas.[5][6][7][8][9]

One species, Hordeum vulgare (barley), has become of major commercial importance as a cereal grain, used as fodder crop and for malting in the production of beer and whiskey. Some species are nuisance weeds introduced worldwide by human activities, others have become endangered due to habitat loss.

Hordeum species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the flame, rustic shoulder-knot and setaceous Hebrew character.

The name Hordeum comes from the Latin word for "to bristle" (horreō, horrēre), and is akin to the word "horror".


Species include:[4][10][11][12]

Hordeum aegiceras – Mongolia, China including Tibet
Hordeum arizonicum US (CA AZ NV NM), Mexico (Baja California, Sonora, Durango)
Hordeum bogdanii – from Turkey and European Russia to Mongolia
Hordeum brachyantherum – Russia (Kuril, Kamchatka), Alaska, Canada including Yukon, US (mostly in the West but also scattered locales in the East), Baja California
Hordeum brachyatherum – Chile
Hordeum brevisubulatum – European Russia; temperate and subarctic Asia from Turkey and the Urals to China and Magadan
Hordeum bulbosum – Mediterranean, Central Asia
Hordeum californicum – US (CA; OR; NV)
Hordeum capense – South Africa, Lesotho
Hordeum chilense – Argentina, Chile (including Juan Fernández Is)
Hordeum comosum – Argentina, Chile
Hordeum cordobense – northern Argentina
Hordeum depressum – US (CA; OR; WA; ID; NV), British Columbia, Baja California
Hordeum distichon – Iraq
Hordeum erectifolium – northern Argentina
Hordeum euclaston – Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina
Hordeum flexuosum – Uruguay, Argentina
Hordeum fuegianum – Tierra del Fuego
Hordeum guatemalense – Guatemala
Hordeum halophilum – Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Peru
Hordeum intercedens (bobtail barley) – California, Baja California
Hordeum jubatum (foxtail barley) – widespread in US and Canada; Asiatic Russia, Inner Mongolia, Central Asia, Caucasus
Hordeum × lagunculciforme – Iraq, Turkmenistan, Himalayas, western China
Hordeum lechleri – Argentina, Chile
Hordeum marinum (sea barley) – Europe, North Africa, southwestern and central Asia
Hordeum murinum (wall barley) – Canary Islands, Europe, North Africa, southwestern and central Asia
Hordeum muticum – Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Peru
Hordeum parodii – Argentina
Hordeum patagonicum – Argentina, Chile
Hordeum × pavisii – France
Hordeum procerum – Argentina
Hordeum pubiflorum – Argentina, Chile
Hordeum pusillum (little barley) – widespread in Canada and US; northern Mexico, Bermuda, Argentina
Hordeum roshevitzii – China, Korea, Primorye, Mongolia, Siberia, Kazakhstan
Hordeum secalinum – Europe, Mediterranean, Caucasus
Hordeum spontaneum – from Greece and Egypt to central China
Hordeum stenostachys – Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, South Africa
Hordeum tetraploidum – Argentina, Chile
Hordeum vulgare (barley) – native to the Middle East, now cultivated in many countries

Formerly included species

Botanists now regard many species as better suited to other genera:[4] Arrhenatherum, Crithopsis, Dasypyrum, Elymus, Eremopyrum, Hordelymus, Leymus, Psathyrostachys, and Taeniatherum.

Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 84–85
lectotype designated by Bowden, Canadian Journal of Botany 37: 679 (1959)
Tropicos, Hordeum L.
Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 395 大麦属 da mai shu Hordeum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 84. 1753.
Flora of Pakistan
Altervista Flora Italiana genere Hordeum includes photos + distribution maps of several species
Cabi, E. & M. Doğan. 2012. Poaceae. 690–756. In A. Güner, S. Aslan, T. Ekim, M. Vural & M. T. Babaç (eds.) Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi. Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanik Bahçesi ve Flora Araştırmaları Derneği Yayını, Istanbul
Pohl, R. W. & G. Davidse. 1994. 60. Hordeum L. 6: 247. In G. Davidse, M. Sousa Sánchez & A.O. Chater (eds.) Flora Mesoamericana. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F..
Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution maps
The Plant List search for Hordeum

"Atlas of Living Australia". Archived from the original on 2015-02-01. Retrieved 2015-02-01.

R. von Bothmer; N. Jacobsen; C. Baden; R. B. Jørgensen; I. Linde-Laursen (1995). An ecogeographical study of the genus Hordeum, 2nd ed. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome. ISBN 978-92-9043-229-6. Archived from the original on 2005-01-01.
F. R. Blattner (2004). "Phylogenetic analysis of Hordeum (Poaceae) as inferred by nuclear rDNA ITS sequences". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 33 (2): 289–299. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.05.012. PMID 15336664.
F. R. Blattner (2006). "Multiple intercontinental dispersals shaped the distribution area of Hordeum (Poaceae)". New Phytologist. 169 (3): 603–614. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2005.01610.x. PMID 16411962.
F. R. Blattner (2009). "Progress in phylogenetic analysis and a new infrageneric classification of the barley genus Hordeum (Poaceae: Triticeae)". Breeding Science. 69 (5): 471–480. doi:10.1270/jsbbs.59.471.
S. S. Jakob; A. Ihlow; F. R. Blattner (2007). "Combined ecological niche modelling and molecular phylogeography revealed the evolutionary history of Hordeum marinum (Poaceae) — niche differentiation, loss of genetic diversity, and speciation in Mediterranean Quaternary refugia". Molecular Ecology. 16 (8): 1713–1727. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03228.x. PMID 17402985. S2CID 46305338.
S. S. Jakob; E. Martinez-Meyer; F. R. Blattner (2009). "Phylogeographic analyses and paleodistribution modeling indicates Pleistocene in situ survival of Hordeum species (Poaceae) in southern Patagonia without genetic or spatial restriction". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 26 (4): 907–923. doi:10.1093/molbev/msp012. PMID 19168565.
T. Pleines; F. R. Blattner (2008). "Phylogeographic implications of an AFLP phylogeny of the American diploid Hordeum species (Poaceae: Triticeae)". Taxon. 57 (3): 875–881. doi:10.1002/tax.573016.

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