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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Oleaceae
Tribus: Jasmineae
Genus: Jasminum
Sectiones: J. sect. Primulina – J. sect. Jasminum – J. sect. Trifoliata – J. sect. Unifoliolata

Species: J. abyssinicum – J. acuminatum – J. adenophyllum – J. agastyamalayanum – J. alongense – J. amabile – J. ambiguum – J. amoenum – J. andamanicum – J. angolense – J. angulareJ. angustifolium – J. annamense – J. anodontum – J. aphanodon – J. apoense – J. arborescens – J. artense – J. attenuatum – J. auriculatum – J. azoricum – J. bakeri – J. batanensis – J. beesianum – J. betchei – J. bhumibolianum – J. brachyscyphum – J. breviflorum – J. brevilobum – J. brevipetiolatum – J. calcareum – J. calcicola – J. calophyllum – J. campyloneurum – J. cardiomorphum – J. carinatum – J. carissoides – J. caudatum – J. celebicum – J. cinnamomifolium – J. coarctatum – J. coffeinum – J. cordatum – J. cordifolium – J. craibianum – J. crassifolium – J. cumingii – J. curtisii – J. cuspidatum – J. dallachyi – J. dasyphyllum – J. decipiens – J. decussatum – J. degeneri – J. dichotomum – J. didymum – J. dinklagei – J. dispermum – J. dolichopetalum – J. domatiigerum – J. duclouxii – J. eberhardtii – J. elatum – J. elegans – J. elongatum – J. extensum – J. flavovirens – J. flexile – J. fluminense – J. foveatum – J. fuchsiifolium – J. gilgianum – J. glaucum – J. grandiflorum – J. greveanum – J. griffithii – J. guangxiense – J. harmandianum – J. hasseltianum – J. honghoense – J. hongshuihoense – J. insigne – J. insularum – J. ixoroides – J. jenniae – J. kajewskii – J. kaulbackii – J. kedahense – J. kerstingii – J. kitchingii – J. kostermansii – J. kriegeri – J. kwangense – J. lanceolaria – J. lasiosepalum – J. latipetalum – J. laurifolium – J. laxiflorum – J. ledangense – J. listeri – J. longipetalum – J. longitubum – J. mackeeorum – J. macrocarpum – J. magnificum – J. maingayi – J. malabaricum – J. marianum – J. melastomifolium – J. mesnyi – J. meyeri-johannis – J. microcalyx – J. molle – J. mossamedense – J. mouilaense – J. multiflorum – J. multinervosum – J. multipartitum – J. multipetalum – J. narcissiodorum – J. nardydorum – J. neocaledonicum – J. nepalense – J. nervosum – J. newtonii – J. niloticum – J. nintooides – J. nobile – J. noldeanum – J. noumeense – J. nudiflorum – J. nummulariifolium – J. obtusifolium – J. octocuspe – J. officinale – J. oliganthum – J. oreophilum – J. papuasicum – J. parceflorum – J. pauciflorum – J. paucinervium – J. pedunculatum – J. pellucidum – J. peninsulare – J. pentaneurum – J. pericallianthum – J. perissanthum – J. pierreanum – J. pipolyi – J. polyanthum – J. populifolium – J. prainii – J. preussii – J. promunturianum – J. pseudopinnatum – J. pteropodum – J. puberulum – J. punctulatum – J. quinatum – J. rambayense – J. ranongense – J. rehderianum – J. ritchiei – J. rufohirtum – J. rupestre – J. sambac – J. sarawacense – J. scandens – J. schimperi – J. sessile – J. siamense – J. simplicifolium – J. sinense – J. smilacifolium – J. spectabile – J. steenisii – J. stellipilum – J. stenolobum – J. × – J. streptopus – J. subglandulosum – J. syringifolium – J. tetraquetrum – J. thomense – J. tomentosum – J. tortuosum – J. trichotomum – J. tubiflorum – J. turneri – J. urophyllum – J. verdickii – J. vidalii – J. vietnamense – J. waitzianum – J. wengeri – J. wrayi – J. yuanjiangense – J. zippelianum

Jasminum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 7. (1753)

Type species: Jasminum officinale L., Sp. Pl. 1: 7. (1753)


Mogorium Juss., Gen. Pl.: 106 (1789).
Nyctanthos St.-Lag., Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon 7: 56 (1880), orth. var.
Noldeanthus Knobl., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 38: 74 (1935).


Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 7. Reference page.
Banfi, E. 2014. Chrysojasminum, a new genus for Jasminum sect. Alternifolia (Oleaceae, Jasmineae). Natural History Sciences 1(1): 3-6. DOI: 10.4081/nhs.2014.54 PDF Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2022. Jasminum in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2022 Jan. 22. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2022. Jasminum. Published online. Accessed: Jan. 22 2022. 2022. Jasminum. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 22 Jan. 2022.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Язмін
català: Gessamí
čeština: Jasmín
dansk: Jasmin
English: Jasmine
Esperanto: jasmeno
español: Jazmín
eesti: Jasmiin
euskara: Jasmin
suomi: Jasmiinit
français: Jasmin
Bahasa Indonesia: Melati
português: Jasmim
русский: Жасмин
svenska: Jasmin
ไทย: มะลิ
Türkçe: Yasemin
中文: 茉莉

Jasmine (taxonomic name: Jasminum; /ˈjæsmɪnəm/, YASS-min-əm[5]) is a genus of shrubs and vines in the olive family (Oleaceae). It contains around 200 species native to tropical and warm temperate regions of Eurasia, Africa, and Oceania. Jasmines are widely cultivated for the characteristic fragrance of their flowers. A number of unrelated plants contain the word "jasmine" in their common names (see Other plants called "jasmine").

See also: Glossary of botanical terms

Jasmine can be either deciduous (leaves falling in autumn) or evergreen (green all year round), and can be erect, spreading, or climbing shrubs and vines. Their leaves are borne in opposing or alternating arrangement and can be of simple, trifoliate, or pinnate formation. The flowers are typically around 2.5 cm (0.98 in) in diameter. They are white or yellow, although in rare instances they can be slightly reddish. The flowers are borne in cymose clusters with a minimum of three flowers, though they can also be solitary on the ends of branchlets. Each flower has about four to nine petals, two locules, and one to four ovules. They have two stamens with very short filaments. The bracts are linear or ovate. The calyx is bell-shaped. They are usually very fragrant. The fruits of jasmines are berries that turn black when ripe. The basic chromosome number of the genus is 13, and most species are diploid (2n=26). However, natural polyploidy exists, particularly in Jasminum sambac (triploid 3n=39), Jasminum flexile (tetraploid 4n=52), Jasminum mesnyi (triploid 3n=39), and Jasminum angustifolium (tetraploid 4n=52).[6]
Distribution and habitat

Jasmines are native to tropical and subtropical regions of Eurasia, Africa, Australasia and Oceania, although only one of the 200 species is native to Europe.[7][8][9] Their center of diversity is in South Asia and Southeast Asia.[10]

Several jasmine species have become naturalized in Mediterranean Europe. For example, the so-called Spanish jasmine (Jasminum grandiflorum) was originally from West Asia, the Indian subcontinent, Northeast Africa, and East Africa, and is now naturalized in the Iberian peninsula.[6][11]

Jasminum fluminense (which is sometimes known by the inaccurate name "Brazilian Jasmine") and Jasminum dichotomum (Gold Coast Jasmine) are invasive species in Hawaii and Florida.[12][13] Jasminum polyanthum, also known as White Jasmine, is an invasive weed in Australia.[14]

Species belonging to the genus are classified under the tribe Jasmineae of the olive family (Oleaceae).[6] Jasminum is divided into five sections—Alternifolia, Jasminum, Primulina, Trifoliolata, and Unifoliolata.[4]
Jasmine Rose photo.jpg

The name "yāsamin" is derived from the Middle Persian word yāsaman. After the Muslim conquest of Persia it was pronounced as yāsamin in arabic language. Through Arabic the name entered Turkish, Latin, then to Middle French around 1570.[15][16] The word was first used in English in the 16th century.[16]
Main article: List of Jasminum species

Species include:[17]

J. abyssinicum Hochst. ex DC. – forest jasmine
J. adenophyllum Wall. – bluegrape jasmine, pinwheel jasmine, princess jasmine
J. andamanicum N.P.Balakr. & N.G.Nair
J. angulare Vahl
J. angustifolium (L.) Willd.
J. auriculatum Vahl – Indian jasmine, needle-flower jasmine
J. azoricum L.
J. beesianum Forrest & Diels – red jasmine
J. dichotomum Vahl – Gold Coast jasmine
J. didymum G.Forst.
J. dispermum Wall.
J. elegans Knobl.
J. elongatum (P.J.Bergius) Willd.
J. floridum Bunge
J. fluminense Vell.
J. fruticans L.
J. grandiflorum L. – Catalan jasmine, jasmin odorant, royal jasmine, Spanish jasmine
J. grandiflorum L.Vell.
J. humile L. – Italian jasmine, Italian yellow jasmine
J. lanceolarium Roxb.
J. laurifolium Roxb. ex Hornem. angel-wing jasmine
J. malabaricum Wight
J. mesnyi Hance – Japanese jasmine, primrose jasmine, yellow jasmine
J. multiflorum (Burm.f.) Andrews – Indian jasmine, star jasmine, winter jasmine
J. multipartitum Hochst. – starry wild jasmine
J. nervosum Lour.
J. nobile C.B.Clarke
J. nudiflorum Lindl. – winter jasmine
J. odoratissimum L. – yellow jasmine
J. officinale L. – common jasmine, jasmine, jessamine, poet's jasmine, summer jasmine, white jasmine
J. parkeri Dunn – dwarf jasmine
J. polyanthum Franch.
J. sambac (L.) Aiton – Arabian jasmine, Sambac jasmine
J. simplicifolium G.Forst.
J. sinense Hemsl.
J. subhumile W.W.Sm.
J. subtriplinerve Blume
J. tortuosum Willd.
J. urophyllum Hemsl.
J. volubile Jacq..

Cultivation and uses

Widely cultivated for its flowers, jasmine is enjoyed in the garden, as a houseplant, and as cut flowers. The flowers are worn by women in their hair in South Asia and southeast Asia.
Jasmine tea
Green tea with jasmine flowers

Jasmine tea is traditionally consumed in China, where it is called Jasmine-flower tea (茉莉花茶; pinyin: mò lì huā chá). Jasminum sambac flowers are used to make jasmine tea, which often has a base of green tea or white tea, but sometimes an Oolong base is used. Tea leaves and jasmine flowers are put in machines that control temperature and humidity. It takes about four hours for the tea to absorb the fragrance and flavor of the jasmine blossoms. For the highest grades of jasmine tea, this process may be repeated up to seven times. As the tea absorbs moisture from the fresh Jasmine flowers, it must be refired to prevent spoilage. The used flowers may be removed from the final product, as the flowers contain no more aroma. Giant fans are used to blow away and remove the petals from the denser tea leaves.

In Okinawa, Japan, Jasmine tea is known as sanpin cha.
Main article: Jasmonate

Jasmine gave name to the jasmonate plant hormones, as methyl jasmonate isolated from the oil of Jasminum grandiflorum led to the discovery of the molecular structure of jasmonates.[18] Jasmonates occur ubiquitously across the plant kingdom, having key roles in responses to environmental cues, such as heat or cold stress, and participate in the signal transduction pathways of many plants.[19]

Jasmine plantation is usually done using the stem of an existing plant, or one having roots. On rare occasions, the flowers bear dark purple fruits with seeds. The seeds will germinate when sowed and nurtured properly. The flowering shrubs are usually trimmed pre-summer, as fresh branches grow and bear flowers during the summer.
Cultural importance

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Jasmine is cultivated commercially for domestic and industrial uses, such as the perfume industry.[20] It is used in rituals like marriages, religious ceremonies, and festivals.[21] Jasmine flower vendors sell garlands of jasmine, or in the case of the thicker motiyaa (in Hindi) or mograa (in Marathi) varieties, bunches of jasmine are common.[22] They may be found around entrances to temples, on major thoroughfares, and in major business areas.

A change in presidency in Tunisia in 1987[23][24] and the Tunisian Revolution of 2011 are both called "Jasmine revolutions" in reference to the flower.[25]

"Jasmine" is a common female given name.


Several countries and states consider jasmine as a national symbol.

Syria: The Syrian city Damascus is called the City of Jasmine.[26]
Hawaii: Jasminum sambac ("pikake") is a common flower used in leis and is the subject of many Hawaiian songs.[27]
Indonesia: Jasminum sambac is the national flower, adopted in 1990.[28] It goes by the name "melati putih" and is used in wedding ceremonies for ethnic Indonesians, especially on the island of Java.
Pakistan: Jasminum officinale is known as the "chambeli" or "yasmin", it is the national flower.[29]
Philippines: Jasminum sambac is the national flower. Adopted in 1935, it is known as "sampaguita" in the islands. It is usually strung in garlands which are then used to adorn religious images.[30]
Thailand: Jasmine flowers are used as a symbol of motherhood.[31]

Other plants called "jasmine"

Brazilian jasmine Mandevilla sanderi
Cape jasmine Gardenia
Carolina jasmine Gelsemium sempervirens
Crape jasmine Tabernaemontana divaricata
Chilean jasmine Mandevilla laxa
Jasmine rice, a type of long-grain rice
Madagascar jasmine Stephanotis floribunda
New Zealand jasmine Parsonsia capsularis
Night-blooming jasmine Cestrum nocturnum
Night-flowering jasmine Nyctanthes arbor-tristis
Orange jasmine Murraya paniculata
Red jasmine Plumeria rubra
Star jasmine, Confederate jasmine Trachelospermum
Tree jasmine (disambiguation)


"Jasminum". Index Nominum Genericorum. International Association for Plant Taxonomy. Retrieved 2008-06-03.
"10. Jasminum Linnaeus". Chinese Plant Names. 15: 307. Retrieved 2008-06-03.
UniProt. "Jasminum". Retrieved 2008-06-03.
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. "Jasminum L." Germplasm Resources Information Network, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Archived from the original on January 26, 2012. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
Sunset Western Garden Book. 1995. pp. 606–607.
A.K. Singh (2006). Flower Crops: Cultivation and Management. New India Publishing. pp. 193–205. ISBN 978-81-89422-35-6.
C.C. Townsend and Evan Guest (1980). "Jasminum officinale," in Flora of Iraq, Vol. 4.1. Baghdad, pp. 513–519.
Ernst Schmidt; Mervyn Lötter; Warren McCleland (2002). Trees and shrubs of Mpumalanga and Kruger National Park. Jacana Media. p. 530. ISBN 978-1-919777-30-6.
Jasminum @
H. Panda (2005). Cultivation and Utilization of Aromatic Plants. National Institute Of Industrial Research. p. 220. ISBN 978-81-7833-027-3.
"Jasminum". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Jasminum fluminense". The PLANTS Database ( Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team.
USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Jasminum dichotomum". The PLANTS Database ( Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team.
"Weeds of the Blue Mountains Bushland – Jasminum polyanthum". Archived from the original on 2014-02-04.
"Definition of Jasmine". Merriam-Webster. 2021-10-23. Retrieved 2022-01-20.
"Jasmine". Online Etymology Dictionary. 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
GRIN. "Jasminum information from NPGS/GRIN". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
Demole E; Lederer, E.; Mercier, D. (1962). "Isolement et détermination de la structure du jasmonate de méthyle, constituant odorant caractéristique de l'essence de jasmin". Helv Chim Acta. 45 (2): 675–85. doi:10.1002/hlca.19620450233.
Sharma, M; Laxmi, A (2016). "Jasmonates: Emerging Players in Controlling Temperature Stress Tolerance". Frontiers in Plant Science. 6: 1129. doi:10.3389/fpls.2015.01129. PMC 4701901. PMID 26779205.
"What's So Great About the Jasmine Flower?". Retrieved 2022-04-27.
August 8; Comments, 2018 | Micaela Nerguizian |. "Hopa! Rituals and Symbols of an Armenian Wedding". Smithsonian Folklife Festival. Retrieved 2022-04-27.
"10 Different Types of Jasmine Plants (Photos) - Garden Lovers Club". Retrieved 2022-04-27.
Michael, Ayari; Vincent Geisser (2011). "Tunisie : la Révolution des "Nouzouh"* n'a pas l'odeur du jasmin" (in French). Témoignage chrétien. Archived from the original on 2011-01-28. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
"La révolution par le feu et par un clic" (in French). Le Quotidien d'Oran/ 2011-02-25. Archived from the original on 2011-07-14. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
Kim, Elvis H (September 2021). "Democratization and Authoritarianism in the Information Age". International Area Studies Review. 24 (3): 205–223. doi:10.1177/22338659211026006. ISSN 2233-8659. S2CID 237434616.
Anabel Bachour (23 February 2017). "Damascus, the City of Jasmine". Peacock Plume, Student Media, The American University of Paris, France. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
Hitt, Christine (1 May 2018). "7 of Hawaii's Most Popular Lei and What Makes Them Unique". Hawaii Magazine. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
Keputusan Presiden No. 4 Tahun 1993 Archived 2012-04-02 at the Wayback Machine
Akhtar, Moin (26 October 2020). "Pakistan National Flower, Animal and Bird". Retrieved 2 March 2022.
"Philippine National Flower- Sampaguita". National Museum of the Philippines. 10 November 2021. Retrieved 2 March 2022.

"Symbolic and spiritual meaning of jasmine flowers". Gardening Tips | Flower Wiki. 2017-01-03. Retrieved 2019-04-25.

Further reading
"Jasminum Linn". Flora of Pakistan: 12. Retrieved 2008-06-03.
Metcalf, Allan A. (1999). The World in So Many Words. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-95920-9.

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