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Kalanchoe delagoensis (Habitus)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Saxifragales

Familia: Crassulaceae
Subfamilia: Kalanchoideae
Genus: Kalanchoe
Subgenus: K. subg. Bryophyllum
Species: Kalanchoe delagoensis

Kalanchoe delagoensis Eckl. & Zeyh. (1837)

Bryophyllum delagoense (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Schinz, Mem. Herb. Boissier 10: 38. 1900.
Bryophyllum tubiflorum Harv., Fl. Cap. 2: 380. 1862, nom. illeg.
Kalanchoe tubiflora Raym.-Hamet, Ann. Mus. Colon. Marseille sér. 3, 2: 125. 1914, nom. illeg.

Bryophyllum verticillatum (Scott-Elliot) A.Berger in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2, 18 a. 411. 1930.
Geaya purpurea Costantin & Poiss., Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 147: 636. 1908.
Kalanchoe verticillata Scott-Elliot, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 29: 14. 1891.


K. × houghtonii
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Africa
Regional: Southern Africa
South Africa (Limpopo, North-West Prov., Gauteng, Mpulamanga, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, N-Cape Prov., W-Cape Prov., E-Cape Prov.), Swaziland, Madagascar

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

Primary references

Ecklon, C.F. & Zeyher, C.L.P. 1837. Enumeratio Plantarum Africae Australis]] extratropicae qua collectae, determinatae et expositae. Pt. i, ii (in 1 vol aged contin.) 305.


Hassler, M. 2019. Kalanchoe delagoensis. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 November 27. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Kalanchoe delagoensis in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 November 27. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Kalanchoe delagoensis. Published online. Accessed: November 27 2019. 2019. Kalanchoe delagoensis. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 November 27.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Kalanchoe delagoensis in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 08-Apr-12.

Vernacular names
Afrikaans: Kandelaarplant, Nenta
English: Chandelier Plant
español: Gusanillo, Pinito del Japon

Kalanchoe delagoensis, formerly known as Bryophyllum delagoense[1] and commonly called mother of millions or chandelier plant,[3] is a succulent plant native to Madagascar. Like other members of Bryophyllum (now included in Kalanchoe[2]), it is able to propagate vegetatively from plantlets that develop on its leaf margins.


It is a robust, completely bare, biennial or more or less perennial, succulent plant that reaches heights of between 0.2 and 2 meters. The upright stems are simple and round. The three-seated, seemingly opposite or alternate leaves are usually upright to straight when spread out. They are slightly cylindrical, a little rutty on the top and reach a length of 1 to 13 centimeters with a diameter of 2 to 6 millimeters. The leaf blade narrowed at the base is reddish-green to gray-green with reddish brown spots. At the tip of the leaf margin there are two to nine small teeth on which there are numerous brood buds .

The compact, multi-flowered inflorescences form thyrses 10 to 25 centimeters long. The slender flower stalk is between 6 and 20 millimeters long. The hermaphrodite flowers are hanging. The reddish to green and red-striped petals are fused together like a bell. The 2.5 to 6 millimeter long corolla tube ends in sharply pointed, triangular-lanceolate corolla lobes 5 to 10 millimeters long and 3.7 to 5.7 millimeters wide. The stamens are attached below the center of the corolla tube and do not protrude beyond the tube. The 2 to 2.5 millimeters large anthers are egg-shaped. The nectar flakes, 0.7 to 2 centimeters longare half-round to square with a rounded tip. The oval-elongated carpel is 5.5 to 6.5 millimeters long. The stylus has a length of about 2 millimeters.

The upright follicles contain seeds with a diameter of 0.6 to 2.5 millimeters.
Invasive species

This species' capability for vegetative reproduction, its drought tolerance, and its popularity as a garden plant, relate to this species' becoming an invasive weed in places such as eastern Australia and many Pacific islands. In the Neotropics hummingbirds sometimes pollinate this non-native plant.[4]

Kalanchoe delagoensis is unwelcome because it displaces native plants and contains bufadienolide cardiac glycosides[5] which can cause fatal poisoning, particularly in grazing animals like cattle.[6] During 1997, 125 head of cattle died after eating this species on a travelling stock reserve near Moree, NSW.[7]

In the Australian states of New South Wales[8] and Queensland,[9] this species and its hybrids have been declared a noxious weed.
See also

List of poisonous plants
Mother of thousands (disambiguation)


Rafter, M.A.; Gillions, R.M.; Walter, G.H. (2008). "Generalist herbivores in weed biological control—A natural experiment with a reportedly polyphagous thrips". Biological Control. Elsevier BV. 44 (2): 188–195. doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2007.09.011. ISSN 1049-9644.
"Kalanchoe delagoensis Eckl. & Zeyh". Plants of the World Online. Kew Science. Retrieved 2020-10-14.
"Kalanchoe delagoensis". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
For example sapphire-spangled emerald (Amazilia lactea) in Brazil (Baza Mendonça & dos Anjos 2005)
Bryotoxins A, B and C: McKenzie et al. (1987), Steyn & van Heerden (1998)
McKenzie & Dunster (1986), McKenzie et al. (1987)
les tanner. "North West Weeds". Archived from the original on 2009-06-21. Retrieved 2013-02-19.
"The New South Wales Government WeedWise Resource".

"The Queensland Government Resource on invasive plants".

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Kalanchoe delagoensis (category)
Wikispecies has information related to Kalanchoe delagoensis.

Baza Mendonça, Luciana & dos Anjos, Luiz (2005): Beija-flores (Aves, Trochilidae) e seus recursos florais em uma área urbana do Sul do Brasil [Hummingbirds (Aves, Trochilidae) and their flowers in an urban area of southern Brazil]. [Portuguese with English abstract] Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 22(1): 51–59. doi:10.1590/S0101-81752005000100007 PDF fulltext
McKenzie, R.A. & Dunster, P.J. (1986): Hearts and flowers: Bryophyllum poisoning of cattle. Australian Veterinary Journal 63(7): 222-227. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.1986.tb03000.x PMID 3778371 (HTML abstract)
McKenzie, R.A.; Franke, F.P. & Dunster, P.J. (1987): The toxicity to cattle and bufadienolide content of six Bryophyllum species. Australian Veterinary Journal 64(10): 298-301. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.1987.tb07330.x PMID 3439945 (HTML abstract)
Steyn, Pieter S & van Heerden, Fanie R. (1998): Bufadienolides of plant and animal origin. Nat. Prod. Rep. 15(4): 397-413. doi:10.1039/a815397y PDF fulltext

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