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Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Lamiales
Familia: Plantaginaceae
Tribus: Antirrhineae
Genus: Linaria
Species: - L. alpina L. amethystea - L. arvensis - L. bipartita - L. buriatica - L. chalepensis - L. dalmatica - L. genistifolia - L. grandiflora - L. incarnata - L. japonica - L. maroccana - L. pinifolia - L. purpurea - L. saxatilis - L. simplex - L. supina - L. spartea - L. triphylla - L. vulgaris


Linaria Mill.. 1754.

Typus: L. vulgaris Mill.


* Miller, P. 1754. Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4. 28.

Vernacular name
Deutsch: Leinkräuter
English: Toadflax
日本語: ウンラン属
Türkçe: Nevruz otu

Linaria is a genus of about 100 species of herbaceous annuals and perennials that was traditionally placed in the figwort family Scrophulariaceae. Due to new genetic research, it has now been placed in the vastly expanded family Plantaginaceae. The genus is native to temperate regions of Europe, northern Africa and Asia, with the highest species diversity in the Mediterranean region.

The members of this genus are known in English as toadflax, a name shared with several related genera. The scientific name means "resembling Linum" (flax), which the foliage of some species superficially resembles.

Closely related genera include the Nuttallanthus (American toadflaxes, recently split from Linaria), Antirrhinum (snapdragons) and Cymbalaria (Ivy-leaved toadflaxes).


* Linaria aeruginea
* Linaria algarviana
* Linaria alpina
* Linaria amethystea
* Linaria amoi
* Linaria angustissima
* Linaria anticaria
* Linaria arenaria
* Linaria arvensis
* Linaria badalii
* Linaria biebersteinii
* Linaria bipartita
* Linaria bipunctata
* Linaria bungei
* Linaria buriatica
* Linaria caesia
* Linaria capraria
* Linaria cavanillesii
* Linaria chalepensis
* Linaria clementei
* Linaria coutinhoi
* Linaria cretacea
* Linaria dalmatica or Linaria genistifolia
* Linaria debilis
* Linaria depauperata
* Linaria diffusa
* Linaria elegans
* Linaria farsensis
* Linaria faucicola
* Linaria ficalhoana
* Linaria filicaulis
* Linaria flava
* Linaria glauca
* Linaria glacialis
* Linaria glauca
* Linaria grandiflora
* Linaria hellenica
* Linaria heterophylla
* Linaria hirta
* Linaria huteri
* Linaria incarnata
* Linaria incompleta
* Linaria japonica
* Linaria kulabensis
* Linaria lamarckii
* Linaria latifolia
* Linaria laxiflora
* Linaria lilacina
* Linaria loeselii
* Linaria longicalcarata
* Linaria macroura
* Linaria maroccana
* Linaria micrantha
* Linaria microsepala
* Linaria nevadensis
* Linaria nigricans
* Linaria nivea
* Linaria oblongifolia
* Linaria odora
* Linaria oligantha
* Linaria pedunculata
* Linaria pelisseriana
* Linaria peloponnesiaca
* Linaria pinifolia
* Linaria platycalyx
* Linaria propinqua
* Linaria pseudolaxiflora
* Linaria purpurea
* Linaria reflexa
* Linaria repens
* Linaria reticulata
* Linaria ricardoi
* Linaria sabulosa
* Linaria sagittata
* Linaria saturejoides
* Linaria saxatilis
* Linaria simplex
* Linaria spartea
* Linaria supina
* Linaria thibetica
* Linaria thymifolia
* Linaria tonzigii
* Linaria triornithophora
* Linaria triphylla
* Linaria tristis
* Linaria uralensis
* Linaria ventricosa
* Linaria verticillata
* Linaria viscosa
* Linaria vulgaris
* Linaria yunnanensis

Common Toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) is a European species which is widely introduced elsewhere. The yellow and orange flowers are seen in many waste places. The species is also known in some areas as "butter-and-eggs".

Broomleaf Toadflax or Dalmatian Toadflax (Linaria genistifolia, syn. L. dalmatica) is a native of southeast Europe that has become a weed in parts of North America.

Purple Toadflax (Linaria purpurea) is native to the Mediterranean region, and is a popular garden plant, with erect stems up to 1 m tall when fully mature, with numerous dark purple or pink flowers.

Pale Toadflax (Linaria repens) from west Europe is similar to L. purpurea, but has more pale colored flowers.

Since Linaria species are toxic to livestock, the plants are regarded as noxious weeds. However, toadflaxes are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the Mouse Moth and the Common Buckeye.

Medicinal Uses

Common toadflax is especially valued for its strongly laxative and diuretic activities. Internally it us used in the treatment of edema, jaundice, liver diseases and skin problems. Externally it is used in an ointment to treat hemorrhoids, skin eruptions, sores and ulcers. The juice of the plant is a good remedy for inflamed eyes, though should be used with caution. Dosage is critical and it should not be given to pregnant women, since the plant might be slightly toxic.

External Links

* Species Profile- Dalmatian Toadflax (Linaria dalmatica), National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library. Lists general information and resources for Dalmatian Toadflax.

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