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Linaria vulgaris

Linaria vulgaris (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Plantaginaceae
Tribus: Antirrhineae
Genus: Linaria
Sectio: L. sect. Linaria
Subsectio: L. subsect. Linaria
Species: Linaria vulgaris

Linaria vulgaris Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8: Linaria no. 1. 1768.

Replaced synonym
Antirrhinum linaria L., Sp. Pl. 2: 616. 1753.


USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Linaria vulgaris in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 09-Oct-10.
Flora of NW Europe

Vernacular names
azərbaycanca: Adi mahmızca
català: Palometa
kaszëbsczi: Zwùńc
čeština: Lnice květel
Cymraeg: Llin y llyffant
dansk: Almindelig Torskemund
Deutsch: Echtes Leinkraut
English: Common Toadflax
español: Linaria común
eesti: Harilik käokannus
فارسی: گل کتانی
suomi: Keltakannusruoho
français: Linaire commune
hornjoserbsce: Dobry lenčk
magyar: Közönséges gyújtoványfű
italiano: Linaria volgare
日本語: 細葉海蘭
kurdî: Newroz
lietuvių: Paprastoji linažolė
latviešu: Parastā vīrcele
македонски: Обичен ленолист
norsk bokmål: Lintorskemunn
Nederlands: Vlasbekje
norsk nynorsk: Torskemunn
norsk: Lintorskemunn
polski: Lnica pospolita
русский: Льнянка обыкновенная
slovenčina: Pyštek obyčajný
slovenščina: Navadna madronščica
српски / srpski: Ланилист / Lanilist
svenska: Gulsporre
українська: Льонок звичайний
中文: 新疆柳穿鱼

Linaria vulgaris, the common toadflax,[1][2] yellow toadflax or butter-and-eggs,[3] is a species of flowering plant in the family Plantaginaceae, native to Europe, Siberia and Central Asia.[4] It has also been introduced and is now common in North America.[3]


It is a perennial plant with short spreading roots, erect to decumbent stems 15–90 cm (6–35 in) high, with fine, threadlike, glaucous blue-green leaves 2–6 cm (3⁄4–2+1⁄4 in) long and 1–5 mm (0.04–0.20 in) broad. The flowers are similar to those of the snapdragon, 25–33 mm (0.98–1.30 in) long, pale yellow except for the lower tip which is orange, borne in dense terminal racemes from mid summer to mid autumn. The flowers are mostly visited by bumblebees.[5] The fruit is a globose capsule 5–11 mm (0.20–0.43 in) long and 5–7 mm (0.20–0.28 in) broad, containing numerous small seeds.[2]
Linaria vulgaris.jpg
Pollination by garden bumblebee

The plant is widespread on ruderal spots, along roads, in dunes, and on disturbed and cultivated land.[2]

Because the flower is largely closed by its underlip, pollination requires strong insects such as bees and bumblebees (Bombus species).[2]

Linaria vulgaris is a food plant for a large number of insects such as the sweet gale moth (Acronicta euphorbiae), mouse moth (Amphipyra tragopoginis), silver Y (Autographa gamma), Calophasia lunula, gorgone checkerspot (Charidryas gorgone carlota), toadflax pug (Eupithecia linariata), satyr pug (Eupithecia satyrata), Falseuncaria ruficiliana, bog fritillary (Boloria eunomia), Pyrrhia umbra, brown rustic (Rusina ferruginea), and Stenoptilia bipunctidactyla.

It may be mildly toxic to livestock.[6]
Fossil record

Seeds of the common toadflax, were identified from the Hoxnian interglacial strata at Clacton. Records have also come from the Weichselian glaciation strata in Essex, Huntingdonshire, Surrey and North Wales. This evidence makes the native status of the plant in Britain quite evident despite the very strong association that it has today with waste places and man-made habitats.[7]
Cultivation and uses

While most commonly found as a wildflower, toadflax is sometimes cultivated for cut flowers, which are long-lasting in the vase. Like snapdragons (Antirrhinum), they are often grown in children's gardens for the "snapping" flowers which can be made to "talk" by squeezing them at the base of the corolla.[8]

The plant requires ample drainage, but is otherwise adaptable to a variety of conditions. It has escaped from cultivation in North America where it is common on roadsides and in poor soils, where it has now naturalized in many U.S. states and Canadian provinces.[9]

Despite its reputation as a weed, like the dandelion, this plant has also been used in folk medicine for a variety of ailments. A tea made from the leaves was taken as a laxative and strong diuretic as well as for jaundice, dropsy, and enteritis with drowsiness. For skin diseases and piles, either a leaf tea or an ointment made from the flowers was used. In addition, a tea made in milk instead of water has been used as an insecticide. It is confirmed to have diuretic and fever-reducing properties.[10][11]
Other names

Linaria acutiloba Fisch. ex Rchb. is a synonym.[12] Because this plant grows as a weed, it has acquired a large number of local colloquial names, including brideweed, bridewort, butter and eggs (but see Lotus corniculatus), butter haycocks, bread and butter, bunny haycocks, bunny mouths, calf's snout, Continental weed, dead men's bones, devil's flax, devil's flower, doggies, dragon bushes, eggs and bacon (but see Lotus corniculatus), eggs and butter, false flax, flaxweed, fluellen (but see Kickxia), gallweed, gallwort, impudent lawyer, Jacob's ladder (but see Polemonium), lion's mouth, monkey flower (but see Mimulus), North American ramsted, rabbit flower, rancid, ransted, snapdragon (but see Antirrhinum), wild flax, wild snapdragon, wild tobacco (but see Nicotiana), yellow rod, yellow toadflax.[8]

Natural History Museum: Linaria vulgaris
Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ISBN 0-340-40170-2
Dickinson, T.; Metsger, D.; Bull, J.; Dickinson, R. (2004). The ROM Field Guide to Wildflowers of Ontario. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum. p. 367. ISBN 0771076525. OCLC 54691765.
"Linaria vulgaris". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
Van Der Kooi, C. J.; Pen, I.; Staal, M.; Stavenga, D. G.; Elzenga, J. T. M. (2015). "Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers". Plant Biology. 18 (1): 56–62. doi:10.1111/plb.12328. PMID 25754608.
Common Weeds of the United States. New York: Dover. 1971. p. 328. ISBN 0-486-20504-5.
Godwin, Harry (1975). The History of the British Flora, A Factual Basis for Phytogeography. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-20254-X.
Mabey, R. (1996). Flora Britannica. Sinclair-Stevenson. ISBN 1-85619-377-2.
Britton, Nathaniel Lord; Brown, Addison (1970) [first published 1913]. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada. Vol. 3. Dover Publications. p. 177. ISBN 0-486-22642-5.
Foster, Steven; Duke, James A. (2000). A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants and Herbs: Of Eastern and Central North America (Peterson Field Guides). Houghton Mifflin. p. 120. ISBN 0-395-98814-4.
Pandya, Preeti N.; Aghera, Hetal B.; Ashok, B. K.; Acharya, Rabinarayan (2012). "Diuretic activity of Linaria ramosissima (wall.) Janch. leaves in albino rats". Ayu. 33 (4): 576–578. doi:10.4103/0974-8520.110517. ISSN 0974-8520. PMC 3665199. PMID 23723679.
"Linaria vulgaris". Flora Europaea.

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