Fine Art

Linnaea borealis

Linnaea borealis (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Dipsacales

Familia: Caprifoliaceae
Subfamilia: Linnaeoideae
Genus: Linnaea
Species: Linnaea borealis
Subspecies: L. b. subsp. borealis – L. b. subsp. longiflora

Linnaea borealis L. (1753)

Linnaea albiloba Brenner
Linnaea americana Forbes
Linnaea amoenula Wittr. apud Brenner
Linnaea australis Hoffmannsegg
Linnaea foveolata Brenner
Linnaea jugosa Brenner
Linnaea longiflora Howell
Linnaea parvisignata Brenner
Linnaea pseudoproterantha Pampan.
Linnaea pyrrosema Brenner
Linnaea roseoalba Brenner
Linnaea rotundata Brenner
Linnaea serpyllifolia Rydb.
Linnaea subconfluens Brenner
Linnaea subjugosa Brenner
Linnaea subsulcata Brenner
Linnaea subviolascens Brenner
Linnaea sulcata Brenner
Linnaea tenuiflora Brenner
Linnaea tenuisignata Brenner
Linnaea tenuisulcata Brenner
Linnaea vicina Wittr. apud Brenner
Obolaria borealis (L.) Kuntze

Native distribution areas:

Continental: Europe
Austria, United Kingdom, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Switzerland, Netherlands, Italy, Slovenia, Norway, Poland, Romania, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, N- & C-European Russia, Ukraine, Sweden
Continental: Asia-Temperate
Northern Caucasus, Georgia [Caucasus], Siberia (W-Siberia, C-Siberia), Kazakhstan, Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu), Russian Far East (Kuril Isl., Sakhalin), China (Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, ?Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Xinjiang), Mongolia, North Korea
Continental: Northern America
Alaska, Aleutes, USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Iowa, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Washington State, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Wyoming), Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Labrador, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Northern Territories, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward Isl., Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon), Greenland, St. Pierre et Miquelon

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 631. Reference page.
Giger, E. 1912: Linnaea borealis L., eine monographische Studie Zürich [1].
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Linnaea borealis in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 09-Oct-10. 2012. Linnaea borealis. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 13 Aug 2012.
International Plant Names Index. 2012. Linnaea borealis. Published online. Accessed: Aug 13 2012.
Wittrock, V.B. 1907. Linnæa borealis L., species polymorpha et polychroma. Linnæa borealis L., en mångformig art. Acta Horti Bergiani 4(7): 1–187. BHL Reference page.

Vernacular names
العربية: لينيا شمالية
čeština: Zimozel severní
Cymraeg: Blodyn deuben
dansk: Linnæa
Deutsch: Moosglöckchen
English: Twinflower
Esperanto: Lineo-kloŝo
español: Flor gemela
eesti: Harakkuljus
فارسی: لینه
suomi: Vanamo
français: Linnée boréale
Frysk: Linnaeusklokje
hornjoserbsce: Prawy mochowy zwónčk
italiano: Linnea
日本語: リンネソウ
қазақша: Терістік линнея
한국어: 린네풀
lietuvių: Šiaurinė linėja
latviešu: Ziemeļu linneja
Nederlands: Linnaeusklokje
norsk nynorsk: Linnea
norsk: Linnea
polski: Zimoziół północny
پنجابی: لنیا
русский: Линнея северная
davvisámegiella: Vándádivga
svenska: Linnea
українська: Ліннея північна
Tiếng Việt: Hoa kép
中文: 北极花

Linnaea borealis is a species of flowering plant in the family Caprifoliaceae (the honeysuckle family). Until 2013, it was the only species in the genus Linnaea. It is a boreal to subarctic woodland subshrub, commonly known as twinflower (sometimes written twin flower).

This plant was a favorite of Carl Linnaeus, founder of the modern system of binomial nomenclature, for whom the genus was named.

The leaves are under 1cm long, with a few shallow teeth on the upper half.

The perennial stems of Linnaea borealis are slender, pubescent, and prostrate, growing to 20–40 centimetres (7.9–15.7 in) long, with opposite evergreen rounded oval leaves 3–10 millimetres (0.12–0.39 in) long and 2–7 mm (0.079–0.276 in) broad. The flowering stems curve erect, to 4–8 cm (1.6–3.1 in) tall, and are leafless except at the base. The flowers are paired, pendulous, 7–12 mm (0.28–0.47 in) long, with a five-lobed, pale pink corolla.[1][2]

Linnaea borealis was first formally described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 in Species Plantarum.[3] It was then the sole species in the genus Linnaea. The genus name had been used earlier by the Dutch botanist Jan Frederik Gronovius, and was given in honour of Linnaeus. Linnaeus adopted the name because Linnaea borealis was his favourite plant.[4]

Linnaea borealis is considered to be a single circumboreal species, with three generally recognized subspecies:

Linnaea borealis subsp. borealis - Europe
Linnaea borealis subsp. americana - North America (formerly classified as the species Linnaea americana)
Linnaea borealis subsp. longiflora - Asia, and western North America (from Alaska to California)

The English name "twinflower" for Linnaea borealis refers to the plant's paired flowers.
Ecology and distribution
Linnaea borealis ssp. longiflora in the Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, Washington, U.S.
Linnaea borealis may form long-persisting clonal colonies

Linnaea borealis has a circumpolar distribution in moist subarctic, boreal, or cool temperate forests, extending further south at higher elevations in various mountains, in Europe south to the Alps, in Asia south to northern Japan, and in North America south to northern California and to Arizona and New Mexico in the west, and to West Virginia (and formerly Tennessee) in the Appalachian Mountains in the east.[5] [6]

Linnaea borealis is self-incompatible, requiring cross-pollination to produce viable seeds; since pollen dispersal is usually not far, individuals and clonal colonies can become reproductively isolated.[7] Regardless of seed production, Linnaea plants in a particular area often spread by stolons to form clonal patches of the same genotype. Such clonal stands of Linnaea can be long-persisting, in some places remaining extant even if seed is not produced or if seedling germination or establishment does not occur.

The species was presumably common in areas south of its present range during times of Pleistocene ("Ice Age") glaciations, and its clone-forming perennial growth habit has allowed it to survive the subsequent millennia locally within this former range in various high-elevation or otherwise cool and moist habitats, including algific talus slopes with persisting underground periglacial ice.

While the three subspecies of Linnaea borealis are all considered widespread, abundant, and secure in their main, northern ranges, all three subspecies are of conservation concern near the subspecies' range edges or at more southerly, disjunct sites.

In Great Britain, Linnaea borealis ssp. borealis is listed as "nationally scarce", growing mainly in open pine woodlands in Scotland and northernmost England. Foresters consider this plant to be an indicator species of ancient woodlands, often found in association with creeping lady's tresses. It is found in about 50 sites around the country, with most situated in the woods around the Cairngorms; the southernmost locations are four sites in Northumberland and one in County Durham. The sparseness of the sites is responsible for the continued decline of the plant in the country. In Scotland, 37% of L. borealis patches studied consisted of a single genotype, reproducing clonally vegetatively but not producing viable seed. This is a conservation concern because, without viable seed, the species may not be able to re-populate restored habitat, and may not be able to adapt to climate change by establishing new populations.[7]

In the United States, Linnaea borealis ssp. americana is of conservation concern in several states along or near the southern edge of the species' range, including Arizona, Iowa, Massachusetts, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, and was known historically but now considered extirpated or possibly so in Illinois, Indiana, New Jersey, Ohio, Rhode Island, and Tennessee.

In Canada, Linnaea borealis ssp. longiflora is considered of conservation significance in the Yukon Territory, along the eastern edge of its range, where ssp. americana is widespread and abundant.

Since many of the outlying southern sites for Linnaea borealis are in habitats that are at high elevations or otherwise in cooler microclimates than the surrounding general landscapes, ongoing and prospective climate change has become a significant concern for the conservation of this species in such places, such as Ice Mountain in West Virginia, a low-elevation algific talus slope with persisting buried ice.
Cultural references
Rue Linnea Borealis, Cogne (Aosta Valley)

Linnaeus took Linnaea borealis as his own personal symbol when he was raised to the Swedish nobility in 1757. In his Critica Botanica (1737), Linnaeus had used Gronovius's name Linnaea as an example to advocate the use of commemorative personal names as botanical names:

it is commonly believed that the name of a plant which is derived from that of a botanist shows no connection between the two...[but]...Linnaea was named by the celebrated Gronovius and is a plant of Lapland, lowly, insignificant, disregarded, flowering but for a brief space — after Linnaeus who resembles it.[8][9]

The flower of Linnaea borealis is the provincial flower of Småland,[10] the home province of Linnaeus.

Klinkenberg, Brian, ed. (2014). "Linnaea borealis". E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia []. Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Retrieved 2015-01-24.
Giblin, David, ed. (2015). "Linnaea borealis". WTU Herbarium Image Collection. Burke Museum, University of Washington. Retrieved 2015-01-24.
"Linnaea borealis L." International Plant Names Index (IPNI). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 22 January 2018. Retrieved 2018-01-22.
Christenhusz, Maarten J.M. (2013). "Twins are not alone: a recircumscription of Linnaea (Caprifoliaceae)". Phytotaxa. 125 (1): 25–32. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.125.1.4.
Sullivan, Steven. K. (2015). "Linnaea borealis". Wildflower Search. Retrieved 2015-01-24.
USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Linnaea borealis". The PLANTS Database ( Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 2015-01-24.
Scobie, A. R.; Wilcock, C. C. (2009). "Limited mate availability decreases reproductive success of fragmented populations of Linnaea borealis, a rare, clonal self-incompatible plant". Annals of Botany. 103 (6): 835–846. doi:10.1093/aob/mcp007. PMC 2707897. PMID 19181748.
Stafleu, Frans A. 1971. Linnaeus and the Linnaeans: the Spreading of their Ideas in Systematic Botany, 1735–1789. Utrecht: International Association for Plant Taxonomy. ISBN 90-6046-064-2. p. 83.
Core, Earl L. (1975), The Wondrous Year: West Virginia Through the Seasons, Grantsville, West Virginia: Seneca Books, pg 45.

Visit Småland Archived 2012-09-18 at Retrieved 25 February 2012.

The Linnaeus Link Project in the spring 2005 edition of Nature First, the magazine for Natural History Museum members.
Species and habitat conservation from [1] and [2]
Twinflower species profile [3]

Plants, Fine Art Prints

Plants Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from ""
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World