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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Lamiaceae
Subfamilia: Lamioideae
Tribus: Marrubieae
Genus: Marrubium

M. alyssoides – M. alysson – M. amasiense – M. anisodon – M. aschersonii – M. astracanicum – M. atlanticum – M. ayardii – M. bourgaei – M. catariifolium – M. cephalanthum – M. cordatum – M. crassidens – M. cuneatum – M. cylleneum – M. depauperatum – M. deserti – M. duabense – M. echinatum – M. eriocephalum – M. fontianum – M. friwaldskyanum – M. glechomifolium – M. globosum – M. heterocladum – M. heterodon – M. hierapolitanum – M. incanum – M. leonuroides – M. litardierei – M. lutescens – M. multibracteatum – M. parviflorum – M. peregrinum – M. persicum – M. pestalozzae – M. plumosum – M. procerum – M. propinquum – M. rotundifolium – M. sivasense – M. supinum – M. thessalum – M. trachyticum – M. vanense – M. velutinum – M. vulcanicum – M. vulgare  – M. werneri – M. woronowii – M. yildirimlii


M. × bastetanum – M. × humbertii – M. × paniculatum
Unplaced names

M. lanatum Akgül – M. × montenegrinum – M. × virescens

Marrubium L., Sp. Pl. 2: 582 (1753); Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 254 (1754).

Lectotype species: Marrubium vulgare L., Sp. Pl. 2: 583 (1753), designated by Britton & Brown, Ill. Fl. N.U.S. ed. 2. 3: 110 (1913), supported by M.L. Green, Prop. Brit. Bot. 165 (Aug 1929).


Padota Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 505 (1763), nom. superfl.
Atirbesia Raf., Autik. Bot.: 117 (1840).
Type species: Atirbesia bracteata Raf., Autik. Bot.: 118 (1840) (= Marrubium peregrinum L.)
Maropsis Pomel, Nouv. Mat. Fl. Atl.: 121 (1874).

Native distribution areas:

Northern Europe
Denmark, Great Britain, Ireland (introduced), Sweden.
Middle Europe
Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland.
Southwestern Europe
Baleares, Corse, France, Portugal, Sardegna, Spain.
Southeastern Europe
Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Kriti, Romania, Sicilia, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia.
Eastern Europe
Belarus, Baltic States, Krym, Central European Russia, South European Russia, Ukraine.
Northern Africa
Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia.
Azores, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Madeira.
Middle Asia
Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Turkmenistan, Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan.
North Caucasus, Transcaucasus.
Western Asia
Afghanistan, Cyprus, East Aegean Islands, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon-Syria, Palestine, Sinai, Turkey.
Arabian Peninsula
Saudi Arabia.
Indian Subcontinent
Nepal, Pakistan, West Himalaya.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 582. Reference page. 
Linnaeus, C. 1754. Genera Plantarum, ed. 5: 254. Reference page. 

Additional references

Britton, N.L. & Brown, A. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102d meridian. ed. 2. C. Scribner's sons, New York. Vol. 3: 110. Reference page. 
Hitchcock, A.S. & Green, M.L. 1929. Standard species of Linnaean genera of Phanerogamae (1753–1754). pp. 111–195 in International Botanical Congress. Cambridge (England), 1930. Nomenclature. Proposals by British Botanists. His Majesty's Stationery Office, London. Biblioteca Digital Reference page. 
Siadati, S., Salmaki, Y., Mehrvarz, S.S., Heubl, G. & Weigend, M. 2018. Untangling the generic boundaries in tribe Marrubieae (Lamiaceae: Lamioideae) using nuclear and plastid DNA sequences. Taxon 67(4): 770–783. DOI: 10.12705/674.6 ResearchGate Reference page. 


Govaerts, R. et al. 2014. Marrubium in Kew Science Plants of the World Online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2014 June 12. Reference page. 2014. Marrubium. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 12 June 2014.
International Plant Names Index. 2014. Marrubium. Published online. Accessed: June 12 2014.
Farr, E.R. & Zijlstra, G. (eds.) 1996 onwards. Marrubium in Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Accessed: 2019 Mar 5.

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Andorn
English: Horehound, Hoarhound
suomi: Hurtanmintut

Marrubium (horehound or hoarhound) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae, native to temperate regions of Europe, North Africa, and Asia as far east as the Xinjiang region of western China. A few species are also naturalized in North and South America.[1][2][3][4]


Marrubium alyssoides Pomel – Algeria, Morocco
Marrubium alysson L. – Mediterranean from Spain + Morocco to Palestine
Marrubium anisodon K.Koch – Greece, Albania, Crimea, southwest Asia from Turkey to Kashmir
Marrubium aschersonii Magnus – Tunisia
Marrubium astracanicum Jacq. – Caucasus, Iran, Iraq, Turkey
Marrubium atlanticum Batt. – Morocco
Marrubium ayardii Maire – Morocco
Marrubium × bastetanum Coincy – Spain (M. supinum × M. vulgare)
Marrubium bourgaei Boiss. – Turkey
Marrubium catariifolium Desr. – Caucasus, Turkey
Marrubium cephalanthum Boiss. & Noë – Turkey
Marrubium cordatum Nábelek – Iran, Iraq, Turkey
Marrubium crassidens Boiss. – Iran, Iraq
Marrubium cuneatum Banks & Sol. – Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine
Marrubium cylleneum Boiss. & Heldr. – Greece
Marrubium depauperatum Boiss. & Balansa – Turkey
Marrubium duabense Murata – Iran, Afghanistan
Marrubium echinatum Ball – Morocco
Marrubium eriocephalum Seybold – Iraq
Marrubium fontianum Maire – Rif in northern Morocco
Marrubium friwaldskyanum Boiss. – Bulgaria
Marrubium glechomifolium Freyn & Conrath – Caucasus
Marrubium globosum Montbret & Aucher ex Benth. – Turkey, Syria, Lebanon
Marrubium heterocladum Emb. & Maire – Rif in northern Morocco
Marrubium heterodon (Benth.) Boiss. & Balansa – Turkey
Marrubium hierapolitanum Mouterde – Syria
Marrubium × humbertii Emb. & Maire – Morocco (M. ayardii × M. multibracteatum)
Marrubium incanum Desr. – Italy (including Sicily + Sardinia), Greece, Albania, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria
Marrubium leonuroides Desr. – Caucasus, Crimea
Marrubium litardierei Marmey – Morocco
Marrubium lutescens Boiss. & Heldr. – Turkey
Marrubium multibracteatum Humbert & Maire – Morocco
Marrubium × paniculatum Desr. – Austria, Czech Republic, Yugoslavia (M. peregrinum × M. vulgare)
Marrubium parviflorum Fisch. & C.A.Mey. – Turkey, Iran, Caucasus
Marrubium peregrinum L. – central + Eastern Europe, Turkey, Caucasus
Marrubium persicum C.A.Mey – Turkey, Iran, Caucasus
Marrubium pestalozzae Boiss. – Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova, Ukraine, Crimea
Marrubium plumosum C.A.Mey. – Caucasus
Marrubium procerum Bunge – Iran
Marrubium propinquum Fisch. & C.A.Mey. – Iran, Caucasus
Marrubium rotundifolia Boiss. – Turkey
Marrubium sivasense Aytaç, Akgül & Ekici – Turkey
Marrubium supinum L. – Spain, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia
Marrubium thessalum Boiss. & Heldr. – Albania, Greece
Marrubium trachyticum Boiss. – Turkey
Marrubium vanense Hub.-Mor. – Turkey
Marrubium velutinum Sm. – Greece
Marrubium vulcanicum Hub.-Mor. – Turkey
Marrubium vulgare L. – White horehound or common horehound – widespread from Denmark + Azores + Canary Islands east to Xingiang; naturalized in New Zealand, New Caledonia, Hawaii, Easter Island, North + South America

The genus name Marrubium derives from the Latin word marrubii, meaning horehound. The French Talmudic exegete, Rashi, thinks that this herb may have been used as one of the bitter herbs on the night of Passover.[5] The common English name horehound is of unknown origin, but with the first part 'hore' derived from "hoary", "hairy".

The species formerly classified as Marrubium nigrum (Black Horehound) is now placed in the genus Ballota.

Marrubium species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Coleophora lineolea.

Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Flora of ChinaVol. 17 Page 104 欧夏至草属 ou xia zhi cao shu Marrubium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 582. 1753.
Altervista Flora Italiana, genere Marrubium includes distribution maps for Europe and North America
Biota of North America Program, 2013 county distribution map
Sefer Targum Ha-La'az (ed. Yisroel Gukovitzky), London 1992, p. 68 (entry no. 1000e)

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