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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Ordo: Ericales

Familia: Ericaceae
Subfamilia: Monotropoideae
Tribus: Monotropeae
Genus: Monotropa
Species: M. hypopithys – M. uniflora

Monotropa L., Sp. Pl. 1: 387–388. (1753)

Type species: Monotropa uniflora Carl von Linné, Sp. Pl. 1: 387–388. (1753)


Hypopitys Hill Brit. Herb. 221. (1756) source is opera utique opressa
Hypopithys Scop. Fl. Carniol. (ed. 2) 1: 285. (1772) orth. var.
Hypopithis Raf. Med. Repos. ser. 3, 1: 297. (1810) nom. illeg. superfl., orth. var.
Monotropion St.-Lag. Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon 7: 130. (1880)


Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 387. Reference page.


Hassler, M. 2020. Monotropa. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2020. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2020 May 22. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Monotropa in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2020 May 22. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Monotropa. Published online. Accessed: May 22 2020. 2020. Monotropa. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 22 May 2020.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Monotropa in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 09-Oct-10.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Пад'ельнік
čeština: hnilák
Deutsch: Monotropa
English: Ghost Plants, Indian Pipe, Corpse Plants
Esperanto: Monotropo
español: Monotropa
فارسی: تک‌سو
suomi: Mäntykukat
français: Monotrope
hornjoserbsce: Bjezłopjenčk
日本語: シャクジョウソウ属
lietuvių: Gluosvė
Nederlands: Monotropa
polski: Korzeniówka
русский: Подъельник
slovenčina: hniliak
中文: 水晶兰属

Monotropa is a genus of three species of herbaceous perennial flowering plants that were formerly classified in the family Monotropaceae and presently are classified in Ericaceae. They are native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere and are generally rare. Unlike most plants they do not have chlorophyll and therefore are non-photosynthetic; rather, they are myco-heterotrophs that obtain food through parasitism on subterranean fungi. Because they do not need any sunlight to live, they can live in very dark sites such as the floor of deep sylvae.


The genus consists of the following three species:

Monotropa coccinea
Monotropa hypopitys

Monotropa uniflora

Monotropa brittonii has been proposed as a separate species from Monotropa uniflora.[1]
See also


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