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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Solanales

Familia: Solanaceae
Subfamilia: Nicotianoideae
Tribus: Nicotianeae
Genus: Nicotiana
Sectiones: N. sect. Alatae – N. sect. Nicotiana – N. sect. Noctiflorae – N. sect. Paniculatae – N. sect. Petunioides – N. sect. Polydicliae – N. sect. Repandae – N. sect. Rusticae – N. sect. Suaveolentes – N. sect. Sylvestres – N. sect. Tomentosae – N. sect. Trigonophyllae – N. sect. Undulatae

Nothospecies: N. × calyciflora – N. × edwardsonii – N. × flindersiensis – N. × sanderae


Nicotiana L., Sp. Pl. 1: 180. (1753)

Type species: Nicotiana tabacum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 180. (1753)


Amphipleis Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3. 75. 1836.
Type species: A. quadrivalvis (Pursh) Raf.
Blenocoes/Blencocoes Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3. 75. 1836.
Type species: non design.
Dittostigma Phil., Anales Univ. Chile 36: 194. 1870.
Type species: D. mendocinum Phil.
Eucapnia Raf., Fl. Tell. 3: 74. 1837.
Type species: E. repanda (Lehm.) Raf.
Langsdorfia Raf., Fl. Tell. 3: 74. 1837, nom. illeg. non Langsdorffia Mart. (1818).
Type species: L. viridiflora Raf.
Lehmannia Spreng., Anleit. ed. 2. 2(1): 458. 1817.
Type species: L. tomentosa (Ruiz & Pav.) Spreng.
Nicotidendron Griseb., Abh. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 19: 216. 1874.
Type species: N. glauca (Graham) Griseb.
Perieteris Raf., Fl. Tell. 3: 74. 1837.
Type species: P. viridiflora Raf., nom. illeg.
Polydiclis (G.Don) Miers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 2. 4: 361. 1849.
Type species: P. quadrivalvis (Pursh) Miers
Sairanthus G.Don, Gen. Hist. 4: 399, 467. 1838.
Type species: S. glutinosus G.Don
Siphaulax Raf., Fl. Tell. 3: 74. 1837.
Type species: S. glabra Raf.
Tabacum Gilib., Fl. Lithuan. 39. 1781.
Type species: N. rustica L.
Tabacum Opiz, Ökon.-Techn. Fl. Böhm. (Berchtold & Opiz), 3: 307. 1836, non vidi, nom. illeg. non Gilib. (1781).
Type species: non design.
Tabacus Moench, Meth. 448. 1794.
Type species: T. viscidus Moench
Waddingtonia Phil., Fl. Atacama 41. 1860.
Type species: W. floribunda Phil.

Species overview

N. acaulis – N. acuminata – N. africana – N. alata – N. ameghinoi – N. amplexicaulis – N. arentsii – N. attenuata – N. azambujae – N. benavidesii – N. benthamiana – N. bonariensis – N. burbidgeae – N. cavicola – N. clevelandii – N. cordifolia – N. corymbosa – N. cutleri – N. debneyi – N. excelsior – N. forgentiana – N. fragrans – N. glauca – N. glutinosa – N. goodspeedii – N. gossei – N. heterantha – N. kawakamii – N. knightiana – N. langsdorffii – N. linearis – N. longibracteata – N. longiflora – N. maritima – N. megalosiphon – N. miersii – N. monoschizocarpa – N. mutabilis – N. noctiflora – N. nudicaulis – N. obtusifolia – N. occidentalis – N. otophora – N. paa – N. pauciflora – N. petunioides – N. plumbaginifolia – N. quadrivalvis – N. raimondii – N. repanda – N. rosulata – N. rotundifolia – N. rustica – N. setchellii – N. simulans – N. solanifolia – N. spegazzinii – N. stocktonii – N. suaveolens – N. sylvestris – N. tabacum – N. thyrsiflora – N. tomentosa – N. tomentosiformis – N. truncata – N. umbratica – N. undulata – N. velutina – N. wigandioides – N. wuttkei


Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 180.
Hassler, M. 2019. Nicotiana. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Oct. 3. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Nicotiana. Published online. Accessed: Oct. 3 2019.
Farr, E.R. & Zijlstra, G. (eds.) 1996 onwards. Nicotiana in Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Accessed: 2011 Nov 01.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Тытунь
English: Tobacco
suomi: Tupakat
Nordfriisk: Tabak
日本語: タバコ属

Nicotiana (/ˌnɪkoʊʃiˈeɪnə, nɪˌkoʊ-, -kɒti-, -ˈɑːnə, -ˈænə/[2][3][4]) is a genus of herbaceous plants and shrubs in the family Solanaceae, that is indigenous to the Americas, Australia, south west Africa and the South Pacific. Various Nicotiana species, commonly referred to as tobacco plants, are cultivated as ornamental garden plants. N. tabacum is grown worldwide for production of tobacco leaf for cigarettes and other tobacco products.
Cross section of Nicotiana tabacum corolla, showing pistil and stamens

Main article: List of Nicotiana species

The 67 species include:[5][6]

Nicotiana acuminata (Graham) Hook. – manyflower tobacco[7]
Nicotiana africana Merxm.[7]
Nicotiana alata Link & Otto – winged tobacco, jasmine tobacco, tanbaku (Persian)[7]
Nicotiana attenuata Torrey ex S. Watson – coyote tobacco[7]
Nicotiana benthamiana Domin[7] – benth or benthi
Nicotiana clevelandii A. Gray[7] – Cleveland's tobacco
Nicotiana glauca Graham – tree tobacco, Brazilian tree tobacco, shrub tobacco, mustard tree[7]
Nicotiana glutinosa L.
Nicotiana langsdorffii Weinm.[7] – Langsdorff's tobacco
Nicotiana longiflora Cav.[7] – longflower tobacco or long-flowered tobacco
Nicotiana occidentalis H.-M. Wheeler[7] – native tobacco
Nicotiana obtusifolia M. Martens & Galeotti – desert tobacco, punche, "tabaquillo"[7]
Nicotiana otophora Griseb.[7]
Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv. – Tex-Mex tobacco
Nicotiana quadrivalvis Pursh – Indian tobacco
Nicotiana rustica L. – Aztec tobacco, mapacho[7]
Nicotiana suaveolens Lehm. – Australian tobacco[7]
Nicotiana sylvestris Speg. & Comes – South American tobacco, woodland tobacco[7]
Nicotiana tabacum L. – commercial tobacco grown for the production of cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco, etc.[7]
Nicotiana tomentosiformis Goodsp.[7]

Manmade hybrids

Nicotiana × didepta N. debneyi × N. tabacum[8]
Nicotiana × digluta N. glutinosa × N. tabacum[9]
Nicotiana × sanderae Hort. ex Wats. N. alata × N. forgetiana[8]

Formerly placed here

Petunia axillaris (Lam.) Britton et al. (as N. axillaris Lam.)[10]


The word nicotiana (as well as nicotine) was named in honor of Jean Nicot, French ambassador to Portugal, who in 1559 sent it as a medicine to the court of Catherine de' Medici.[11]
Female Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm)
Further information: List of tobacco diseases

Despite containing enough nicotine and/or other compounds such as germacrene and anabasine and other piperidine alkaloids (varying between species) to deter most herbivores,[12] a number of such animals have evolved the ability to feed on Nicotiana species without being harmed. Nonetheless, tobacco is unpalatable to many species and therefore some tobacco plants (chiefly tree tobacco, N. glauca) have become established as invasive species in some places.

In the 19th century, young tobacco plantings came under increasing attack from flea beetles (Epitrix cucumeris and/or Epitrix pubescens), causing destruction of half the United States tobacco crop in 1876. In the years afterward, many experiments were attempted and discussed to control the flea beetle. By 1880, it was discovered that covering young plants with a frame covered with thin fabric (instead of with branches, as had previously been used for frost control) would effectively protect plants from the beetle. This practice spread until it became ubiquitous in the 1890s.

Lepidoptera whose caterpillars feed on Nicotiana include:

Dark sword-grass or black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon
Turnip moth, Agrotis segetum
Mouse moth, Amphipyra tragopoginis
The nutmeg, Discestra trifolii
Endoclita excrescens
Blackburn's sphinx moth, Manduca blackburni
Tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta
Tomato hornworm, Manduca quinquemaculata
Cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae
Angle shades, Phlogophora meticulosa
Setaceous Hebrew character, Xestia c-nigrum
Cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni[13]
Fall armyworm
Phthorimaea operculella[14]
Tuta absoluta[14]
Lineodes integra[14]
Rhectocraspeda periusalis[14]

These are mainly Noctuidae, but they also comprise Sphingidae, Gelechiidae and Crambidae.
Nicotiana sylvestris
Nicotiana alata
Nicotiana langsdorffii
Nicotiana obtusifolia
Nicotiana × sanderae ornamental cultivar

Several species of Nicotiana, such as N. sylvestris,[15] N. alata 'Lime Green'[16][17] and N. langsdorffii are grown as ornamental plants, often under the name of flowering tobacco.[5][18] They are popular vespertines (evening bloomers), their sweet-smelling flowers opening in the evening to be visited by hawkmoths and other pollinators. In temperate climates they behave as annuals (hardiness 9a-11).[19] The hybrid cultivar 'Lime Green'[17] has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[20]

Garden varieties are derived from N. alata (e.g. 'Niki' and 'Saratoga' series) and more recently from Nicotiana x sanderae (e.g. 'Perfume' and 'Domino' series).[18]

The tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens) has proven to be a massive pest of many species in the genus, and has resisted many attempts at management.[21]
Part of a series on
Dunhill Early Morning Pipe Tobacco

History of tobacco


Tobacco smoke


Nicotiana (Nicotiana tabacum)
Tobacco diseases
Types of tobacco

Personal and social impact

Health effects
Prevalence of consumption
Nicotine marketing
Tobacco and art
Tobacco and other drugs
Tobacco control
Religious views
Tobacco politics
Tobacco smoking


Cultivation of tobacco
Curing of tobacco
Tobacco industry
Tobacco products



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"Nicotiana". Oxford Dictionaries UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2016-01-21.
"Nicotiana". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2016-01-21.
Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
"Nicotiana". Retrieved May 26, 2020.
"Search results — The Plant List". Retrieved May 26, 2020.
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Bot, Ann (2003). "Molecular Systematics, GISH and the Origin of Hybrid Taxa in Nicotiana (Solanaceae)". Annals of Botany. 92 (1): 107–127. doi:10.1093/aob/mcg087. PMC 4243627. PMID 12824072.
Clausen, R.E. (1928) Interspecific hybridization in Nicotiana. VII. The cytology of hybrids of the synthetic species, digluta, with its parents, glutinosa and tabacum. Univ. Cal. Pub. Botany. 11(10):177-211.
"GRIN Species Records of Nicotiana". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-11-30.
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United States. Agricultural Research Service (1984), Suppression and Management of Cabbage Looper Populations, U.S. States Dept. of Agriculture, retrieved 25 September 2017
Hayden, James E.; Lee, Sangmi; Passoa, Steven C.; Young, James; Landry, Jean-François; Nazari, Vazrick; Mally, Richard; Somma, Louis A.; Ahlmark, Kurt M. (2013). "Microlepidoptera on Solanaceae". Digital Identification of Microlepidoptera on Solanaceae. Fort Collins, Colorado: USDA-APHIS-PPQ Identification Technology Program (ITP). Retrieved 2020-02-14.
"RHS advice & tips on garden & indoor plants | Plant finder & selector / RHS Gardening". Retrieved May 26, 2020.
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"Nicotiana 'Lime Green'". RHS Gardening. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
"The National Garden Bureau". Archived from the original on 2015-04-21. Retrieved 2014-07-23.
"PlantFiles: Nicotiana Species, Flowering Tobacco". Dave's Garden. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
"AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 69. Retrieved 13 April 2018.

"Tobacco budworm - Heliothis virescens (Fabricius)". Retrieved 2017-11-09.


Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) (1999): Nicotiana. Retrieved 2007-11-20.
Panter, K.E.; Keeler, R.F.; Bunch, T.D.; Callan, R.J. (1990). "Congenital skeletal malformations and cleft palate induced in goats by ingestion of Lupinus, Conium and Nicotiana species". Toxicon. 28 (12): 1377–1385. doi:10.1016/0041-0101(90)90154-y. PMID 2089736.
Ren, Nan; Timko, Michael P (2001). "AFLP analysis of genetic polymorphism and evolutionary relationships among cultivated and wild Nicotiana species". Genome. 44 (4): 559–571. doi:10.1139/gen-44-4-559. PMID 11550889. Archived from the original on 2012-12-05.

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