Fine Art

Ocimum basilicum

Ocimum basilicum (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Lamiaceae
Subfamilia: Nepetoideae
Tribus: Ocimeae
Subtribus: Ociminae
Genus: Ocimum
Subgenus: O. subg. Ocimum
Sectio: O. sect. Ocimum
Species: Ocimum basilicum

Ocimum basilicum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 597 (1753).

Ocimum basilicum var. bullatum Alef., Landw. Fl., 114 (1866).
Ocimum basilicum var. difforme Benth. in DC., Prodr. 12: 33 (1848).
Ocimum basilicum var. glabratum Benth. in DC., Prodr. 12: 33 (1848).
Ocimum basilicum var. majus Benth. in DC., Prodr. 12: 33 (1848).
Ocimum basilicum var. pelvifolium Alef., Landw. Fl., 114 (1866).
Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens Benth. in DC., Prodr. 12: 33 (1848).
Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflorum (L.) Benth. in DC., Prodr. 12: 33 (1848).
Ocimum basilicum var. violaceum Alef., Landw. Fl., 114 (1866).
Ocimum basilicum var. vulgare Alef., Landw. Fl., 114 (1866).
Ocimum bullatum Lam., Encycl. 1: 384 (1783).
Ocimum caryophyllatum Roxb.
Ocimum integerrinum Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 162 (1800).
Ocimum medium Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8, no. 3 (1768).
Ocimum thyrsiflorum L., Mant. pl. vol. 1: 84 (1767).


O. × africanum

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 597.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Ocimum basilicum in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service.

Vernacular names
Ænglisc: Eorþmistel
العربية: ريحان
беларуская (тарашкевіца): Базылік
беларуская: Базілік
български: Босилек
bosanski: Bosiljak
català: Alfàbrega
čeština: Bazalka pravá
dansk: Basilikum
Deutsch: Basilikum
Ελληνικά: Βασιλικός
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Baśìlic
English: Sweet Basil
Esperanto: Bazilio
español: Albahaca
eesti: Vürtsbasiilik
euskara: Albaraka
فارسی: ریحان
suomi: Maustebasilika
français: Basilic
galego: Asubiote
עברית: ריחן
hrvatski: Bosiljak
hornjoserbsce: Bazlik
Kreyòl ayisyen: Bazilik
magyar: Bazsalikom
Bahasa, Indonesia: Selasih
íslenska: Basilíka
italiano: Basilico
日本語: バジリコ
한국어: 바질
kurdî: Rihan
Latina: Basilicum
Lëtzebuergesch: Basilic
Bahasa Melayu: Pokok Selasih
Napulitano: Vasenicola
Nederlands: Basilicum
norsk nynorsk: Basilikum
norsk: Basilikum
occitan: Basèli
polski: Bazylia pospolita
português: Alfavaca
română: Busuioc
русский: Базилик душистый
slovenčina: Bazalka pravá
slovenščina: Navadna bazilika
Gagana Samoa: Sauga
српски / srpski: Босиљак
svenska: Basilika
தமிழ்: கிராம்பு துளசி
ไทย: โหระพา
lea faka-Tonga: Taʻetaʻe
Türkçe: Fesleğen
reo tahiti: Miri
українська: Васильки справжні
Tiếng Việt: É
Bân-lâm-gú: Káu-chàn-thah
中文: 羅勒

Basil (/ˈbæzəl/,[1] also US: /ˈbeɪzəl/;[2] Ocimum basilicum), also called great basil, is a culinary herb of the family Lamiaceae (mints).

Basil is native to tropical regions from Central Africa to Southeast Asia.[3] It is a tender plant, and is used in cuisines worldwide.

There are many varieties of basil, as well as several related species or hybrids also called basil. The type used commonly as a flavor is typically called sweet basil (or Genovese basil), as opposed to Thai basil (O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora), lemon basil (O. × citriodorum), and holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum). While most common varieties of basil are treated as annuals, some are perennial in warm, tropical climates, such as the closely related holy basil and hybrids such as African blue basil.


Basil is an annual, or sometimes perennial, herb used for its leaves. Depending on the variety, plants can reach heights of between 30 and 150 cm (1 and 5 ft). Its leaves are richly green and ovate, but otherwise come in a wide variety of sizes and shapes depending on cultivar. Leaf sizes range from 3 to 11 cm (1 to 4+1/2 in) long, and between 1 and 6 cm (1/2 and 2+1/2 in) wide. Basil grows a thick, central taproot. Its flowers are small and white, and grow from a central inflorescence that emerges from the central stem atop the plant.

The various basils have such distinct scents because the volatile aromatic compounds vary with cultivars.[3] The essential oil from European basil contains high concentrations of linalool and methyl chavicol (estragole), in a ratio of about 3:1.[3][4] Other constituents include: 1,8-cineole, eugenol, and myrcene, among others.[3][5] The clove scent of sweet basil is derived from eugenol.[6] The aroma profile of basil includes 1,8-cineole[7][8] and methyl eugenol.[7][9] In this species eugenol is synthesised from coniferyl acetate and NADPH.[10] Some of these are useful as insect repellents, see § Insect repellent below.

The name "basil" comes from the Latin basilius, and the Greek βασιλικόν φυτόν (basilikón phutón), meaning "royal/kingly plant", possibly because the plant was believed to have been used in production of royal perfumes.[11] The Latin name has been confused with basilisk, as it was supposed to be an antidote to the basilisk's venom.[11]
Further information: List of basil cultivars

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The exact taxonomy of basil is uncertain due to the immense number of cultivars, its ready polymorphy, and frequent cross-pollination (resulting in new hybrids) with other members of the genus Ocimum and within the species. Ocimum basilicum has at least 60 varieties, which further complicates taxonomy.[3]

Most basils are cultivars of sweet basil.

Anise basil, Licorice basil or Persian basil (O. basilicum 'Liquorice')
Cinnamon basil (Ocimum basilicum 'Cinnamon')
Dark opal basil (Ocimum basilicum 'Dark Opal')
Lettuce leaf basil (Ocimum basilicum 'Crispum')
Purple basil (Ocimum basilicum 'Purpurescens')
Rubin basil (Ocimum basilicum 'Rubin')
Globe basil, dwarf basil, French basil (Ocimum basilicum 'Minimum')[12]
Thai basil (Ocimum basilicum thyrsifolium)


African blue basil (Ocimum basilicum X O. kilimandscharicum)
Spice basil (Ocimum basilicum X O. americanum), which is sometimes sold as holy basil)
Lemon basil (Ocimum basilicum X O. americanum)[13][14]

Similar species

Camphor basil, African basil (O. kilimandscharicum)
Clove basil, also African basil (Ocimum gratissimum)[15][16]
Holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum, formerly known as O. sanctum)

Other cultivars

Several other basils, including some other Ocimum species,[17] are grown in many regions of Asia. Most of the Asian basils have a clove-like flavor that is, in general, stronger than the Mediterranean basils, such as tulsi. Lemon basil has a strong lemony smell and flavor very different from those of other varieties because it contains a chemical called citral. It is widely used in, Indonesia, where it is called kemangi, served raw together with raw cabbage, green beans, and cucumber as an accompaniment to fried fish or duck. Its flowers, when broken up, are a zesty salad condiment.
Distribution and habitat

Basil is native to India and other tropical regions stretching from Africa to Southeast Asia, but has now become globalized due to human cultivation.[3]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Most culinary and ornamental basils are cultivars of the species Ocimum basilicum, but other species are also grown and there are many hybrids between species. Traditionally a green plant, some varieties, such as 'Purple Delight', have leaves that appear purple.

Basil grows between 30–130 cm (12–51 in) tall, with opposite, light green, silky leaves 3–11 cm (1–4+1⁄2 in) long and 1–6 cm (1⁄2–2+1⁄2 in) broad. The flowers are small, white in color and arranged in a terminal spike. Unusual among Lamiaceae, the four stamens and the pistil are not pushed under the upper lip of the corolla, but lie over the inferior lip. After entomophilous pollination, the corolla falls off and four round achenes develop inside the bilabiate calyx.

Basil is sensitive to cold, with best growth in hot, dry conditions. It behaves as an annual if there is any chance of a frost. However, due to its popularity, basil is cultivated in many countries around the world. Production areas include countries in the Mediterranean area, those in the temperate zone, and others in subtropical climates.[18]

In Northern Europe, Canada, the northern states of the U.S., and the South Island of New Zealand, basil grows best if sown under glass in a peat pot, then planted out in late spring/early summer (when there is little chance of a frost); however, it can also thrive when planted outside in these climates. Additionally, it may be sown in soil once chance of frost is past. It fares best in well-drained soil with direct exposure to the sun.

Although basil grows best outdoors, it can be grown indoors in a pot and, like most herbs, will do best on a sun-facing windowsill, kept away from extremely cold drafts. A greenhouse or row cover is ideal if available. It can, however, even be grown in a basement under fluorescent lights. If its leaves have wilted from lack of water, it will recover if watered thoroughly and placed in a sunny location. Yellow leaves towards the bottom of the plant are an indication that the plant has been stressed; usually this means that it needs less water, or less or more fertilizer. If allowed to go to seed, a basil plant will grow back the next year. Basil plants require regular watering, but not as much attention as is needed in other climates. Basil can also be propagated reliably from cuttings with the stems of short cuttings suspended for two weeks or so in water until roots develop.

Once a stem produces flowers, foliage production stops on that stem, the stem becomes woody, and essential oil production declines. To prevent this, a basil-grower may pinch off any flower stems before they are fully mature. Because only the blooming stem is so affected, some stems can be pinched for leaf production, while others are left to bloom for decoration or seeds.

Once the plant is allowed to flower, it may produce seed pods containing small black seeds, which can be saved and planted the following year. Picking the leaves off the plant helps promote growth, largely because the plant responds by converting pairs of leaflets next to the topmost leaves into new stems.

Basil is popularly recommended as a companion plant to the tomato. Common claims are that basil may deter pests or improve tomato flavor. However, in double-blind taste tests, basil did not significantly affect the taste of tomatoes when planted adjacent to them.[19][20]

Supplemental lighting produces greater biomass and phenol production, with red + blue specifically increasing growth and flower bud production. UV-B increases the volatiles in O. basilicum essential oil, which has not been reproducible in other plants, and so may be unique to the genus or even to this species.[21]

Basil suffers from several plant pathogens that can ruin the crop and reduce yield. Fusarium wilt is a soil-borne fungal disease that will quickly kill younger basil plants. Seedlings may be killed by Pythium damping off. A common foliar disease of basil is gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea; it can cause infections post-harvest and is capable of killing the entire plant. Black spot can be seen on basil foliage and is caused by the fungi genus Colletotrichum. Downy mildew caused by Peronospora belbahrii is a significant disease, as first reported in Italy in 2004.[22] It was reported in the U.S. in 2007 and 2008.[23][24]

Non-pathogenic bacteria found on basil include Novosphingobium species.[25]
Dried basil leaves

Basil is most commonly used fresh in recipes. In general, it is added last, as cooking quickly destroys the flavor. The fresh herb can be kept for a short time in plastic bags in the refrigerator, or for a longer period in the freezer, after being blanched quickly in boiling water.

Basil is one of the main ingredients in pesto, an Italian sauce with olive oil and basil as its primary ingredients. It is also an essential ingredient in the popular Italian-American marinara sauce.

The most commonly used Mediterranean basil cultivars are "Genovese", "Purple Ruffles", "Mammoth", "Cinnamon", "Lemon", "Globe", and "African Blue". The Chinese also use fresh or dried basils in soups and other foods. In Taiwan, people add fresh basil leaves to thick soups. They also eat fried chicken with deep-fried basil leaves. Basil (most commonly Thai basil) is commonly steeped in cream or milk to create an interesting flavor in ice cream or chocolates (such as truffles). The leaves are not the only part of basil used in culinary applications, the flower buds have a more subtle flavor and they are edible.

When soaked in water, the seeds of several basil varieties become gelatinous, and are used in Asian drinks and desserts such as the Indian faluda, the Iranian sharbat-e-rihan, or h?t é.
Folk medicine

In folk medicine practices, such as those of Ayurveda or traditional Chinese medicine, basil is thought to have therapeutic properties.[26][27]
Insect neurochemistry

The essential oil is found by Huignard et al 2008 to inhibit electrical activity by decreasing action potential amplitude, by shortening the post hyperpolarization phase, and reducing the action frequency of action potentials. In Huignard's opinion this is due to the linalool and estagole, the amplitude reduction due to linalool, and the phase shortening due to both.[28]
Insect repellent

Research studies of the essential oil showed antifungal and insect-repelling properties,[29] including potential toxicity to mosquitos.[30]

The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci are repelled by O. basilicum, making this useful as an insect repellent in other crops.[31]

Callosobruchus maculatus in cowpea is repelled by the essential oil.[28]

Sitophilus oryzae, Stegobium paniceum, Tribolium castaneum, and Bruchus chinensis are evaluated by Deshpande et al 1974 and '77.[28]

The EO mixed with kaolin is both an adulticide and an ovicide, effective for three months in against C. maculatus in cowpea.[28]

The essential oil is found by Malik et al 1987 and Sangwan et al 1990 to be nematicidal against Tylenchulus semipenetrans, Meloidogyne javanica, Anguina tritici, and Heterodera cajani.[32]
Bacterial inhibition

The essential oil of leaf and/or terminal shoot is effective against a large number of species including Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Pseudomonas spp.[33]
Fungal inhibition

The essential oil of leaf and/or terminal shoot is effective against a large number of species including Aspergillus spp., Candida spp., Mucor spp., and Geotrichum candidum.[33]
Isabella and the Pot of Basil, William Holman Hunt, 1868

There are many rituals and beliefs associated with basil. Basil is sometimes referred to in French as "l'herbe royale" ('the royal herb'),[34] while Jewish folklore suggests it adds strength while fasting.[35] In Portugal, dwarf bush basil is traditionally presented in a pot, together with a poem and a paper carnation, to a sweetheart, on the religious holidays of John the Baptist (see Saint John's Eve § Portugal) and Saint Anthony of Padua. Conversely, basil represented hatred in ancient Greece.[36] Herbalist Nicholas Culpeper similarly saw basil as a plant of dread and suspicion.[37]

Holy basil, also called tulsi, is highly revered in Hinduism. Basil has religious significance in the Greek Orthodox Church, where it is used to sprinkle holy water.[38] The Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Serbian Orthodox Church, Macedonian Orthodox Church and Romanian Orthodox Church use basil (Bulgarian: босилек, bosilek; Serbian: босиљак, bosiljak; Macedonian: босилек, bosilek) to prepare holy water and pots of basil are often placed below church altars.[39] Some Greek Orthodox Christians even avoid eating it due to its association with the legend of the Elevation of the Holy Cross.[40]

In Hinduism, basil is placed in the hands of the dead to ensure a safe journey.[41][better source needed] In India, basil is placed in the mouth of the dying to ensure they reach God.[42] The ancient Egyptians and ancient Greeks believed basil would open the gates of heaven for a person passing on.[43]

In Giovanni Boccaccio's 14th century Decameron, the fifth story of the narrative's fourth day involves a pot of basil as a central plot device. This famous story inspired John Keats to write his 1814 poem "Isabella, or the Pot of Basil", which was in turn the inspiration for two paintings of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood: John Everett Millais's Isabella in 1849 and in 1868 the Isabella and the Pot of Basil by William Holman Hunt.
See also

Insect repellent
List of basil cultivars


"British: Basil". Collins Dictionary. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
"American: Basil". Collins Dictionary. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
Simon, James E (23 February 1998). "Basil". Center for New Crops & Plant Products, Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. Archived from the original on 2 May 2017. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
Lee, Seung-Joo; Umano, Katumi; Shibamoto, Takayuki; Lee, Kwang-Geun (2005). "Identification of Volatile Components in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and Thyme Leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) and Their Antioxidant Properties". Food Chemistry. 91: 131–137. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.05.056.
Eberhard Breitmaier (22 September 2006). Terpenes: Flavors, Fragrances, Pharmaca, Pheromones. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 11–. ISBN 978-3-527-31786-8. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013. "Acyclic monoterpenoid trienes such as p-myrcene and configurational isomers of p- ocimene are found in the oils of basil (leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Labiatae), bay (leaves of Fimenta acris, Myrtaceae), hops (strobiles of Humulus lupulus, ..."
Md Shahidul Islam (4 February 2011). Transient Receptor Potential Channels. Springer. pp. 50–. ISBN 978-94-007-0265-3. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013. "Eugenol is a vanilloid contained in relatively high amounts in clove oil from Eugenia caryophyllata, as well as cinnamon leaf oil (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) and oil from the clove basil Ocimum gratissimum. While eugenol is often referred to as ..."
Johnson, B. Christopher; et al. (1999). "Substantial UV-B-mediated induction of essential oils in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)". Phytochemistry. 51 (4): 507–510. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(98)00767-5.
Baritaux, O.; Richard, H.; Touche, J.; Derbesy, M.; et al. (1992). "Effects of drying and storage of herbs and spices on the essential oil. Part I. Basil, Ocimum basilicum L.". Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 7 (5): 267–271. doi:10.1002/ffj.2730070507.
Miele, Mariangela; Dondero, R; Ciarallo, G; Mazzei, M; et al. (2001). "Methyleugenol in Ocimum basilicum L. Cv. 'Genovese Gigante'". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 49 (1): 517–521. doi:10.1021/jf000865w. PMID 11170620.
Lin, Jerry; Massonnet, Mélanie; Cantu, Dario (1 July 2019). "The genetic basis of grape and wine aroma". Horticulture Research. Nature + Nanjing Agricultural University. 6 (1): 1–24. doi:10.1038/s41438-019-0163-1. ISSN 2052-7276.
"Basil". Etymology Online, Douglas Harper. 2018. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012.
"Ocimum minimum information from NPGS/GRIN". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.
"Ocimum africanum Lour. taxonomy detail from NPGS/GRIN". Archived from the original on 13 September 2016.
Ocimum × africanum Lour. in 'The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species', retrieved 3 December 2016
Fandohan, P.; Gnonlonfin, B; Laleye, A; Gbenou, JD; Darboux, R; Moudachirou, M; et al. (2008). "Toxicity and gastric tolerance of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Ocimum basilicum in Wistar rats". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 46 (7): 2493–2497. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2008.04.006. PMID 18511170.
Pessoa, L. M.; Morais, SM; Bevilaqua, CM; Luciano, JH (2002). "Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. and eugenol against Haemonchus contortus". Veterinary Parasitology. 109 (1–2): 59–63. doi:10.1016/S0304-4017(02)00253-4. PMID 12383625.
"Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Synonyms". The Plant List, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Gardens. 23 March 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
Hiltunen, Raimo; Holm, Yvonne (2 September 2003). Basil: The Genus Ocimum. CRC Press. ISBN 9780203303771. Archived from the original on 18 April 2017.
Bomford, Michael (May 2009). "Do Tomatoes Love Basil but Hate Brussels Sprouts? Competition and Land-Use Efficiency of Popularly Recommended and Discouraged Crop Mixtures in Biointensive Agriculture Systems". Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 33 (4): 396–417. doi:10.1080/10440040902835001. S2CID 51900856. Archived from the original on 18 September 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
Bomford, Michael (May 2004), Yield, Pest Density, and Tomato Flavor Effects of Companion Planting in Garden-scale Studies Incorporating Tomato, Basil, and Brussels Sprout, West Virginia University Libraries
Marondedze, Claudius; Liu, Xinyun; Huang, Shihui; Wong, Cynthia; Zhou, Xuan; Pan, Xutong; An, Huiting; Xu, Nuo; Tian, Xuechen; Wong, Aloysius (1 November 2018). "Towards a tailored indoor horticulture: a functional genomics guided phenotypic approach". Horticulture Research. Nature + Nanjing Agricultural University. 5 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1038/s41438-018-0065-7. ISSN 2052-7276.
Garibaldi, A., Minuto, A., Minuto, G., Gullino, M.L., 2004. First Report of Downy Mildew on Basil (Ocimum basilicum) in Italy. Plant Disease 88, 312–312
Roberts, P.D., Raid, R.N., Harmon, P.F., Jordan, S.A., Palmateer, A.J., 2009. First Report of Downy Mildew Caused by a Peronospora sp. on Basil in Florida and the United States. Plant Disease 93, 199–199.
Wick, R.L., Brazee, N.J., 2009. First Report of Downy Mildew Caused by a Peronospora Species on Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum) in Massachusetts. Plant Disease 93, 318–318.
Ceuppens, S., Delbeke, S., De Coninck, D., Boussemaere, J., Boon, N., & Uyttendaele, M. (2015). Characterization of the Bacterial Community Naturally Present on Commercially Grown Basil Leaves: Evaluation of Sample Preparation Prior to Culture-Independent Techniques. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(8), 10171–10197.
Hiltunen R, Holm Y (2003). Basil: The Genus Ocimum. CRC Press. pp. 120–1. ISBN 9780203303771. Archived from the original on 12 October 2016.
Ambrose, Dawn C. P.; Manickavasagan, Annamalai; Naik, Ravindra (25 July 2016). Leafy Medicinal Herbs: Botany, Chemistry, Postharvest Technology and Uses. CABI. ISBN 9781780645599. Archived from the original on 21 April 2017.
Regnault-Roger, Catherine; Vincent, Charles; Arnason, John Thor (7 January 2012). "Essential Oils in Insect Control: Low-Risk Products in a High-Stakes World". Annual Review of Entomology. Annual Reviews. 57 (1): 405–424. doi:10.1146/annurev-ento-120710-100554. ISSN 0066-4170. PMID 21942843.
Dube S, Upadhhyay PD, Tripath SC (1989). "Antifungal, physicochemical, and insect-repelling activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum". Canadian Journal of Botany. 67 (7): 2085–2087. doi:10.1139/b89-264.
Maurya, Prejwltta; Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Batabyal, Lata; Srivastava, C.N.; et al. (2009). "Evaluation of the toxicity of different phytoextracts of Ocimum basilicum against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus". Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 12 (2): 113–115. doi:10.1016/j.aspen.2009.02.004.
Kirk, William D. J.; de Kogel, Willem Jan; Koschier, Elisabeth H.; Teulon, David A. J. (7 January 2021). "Semiochemicals for Thrips and Their Use in Pest Management". Annual Review of Entomology. Annual Reviews. 66 (1): 101–119. doi:10.1146/annurev-ento-022020-081531. ISSN 0066-4170.
Chitwood, David J. (2002). "Phytochemical Based Strategies for Nematode Control". Annual Review of Phytopathology. Annual Reviews. 40 (1): 221–249. doi:10.1146/annurev.phyto.40.032602.130045. ISSN 0066-4286.
Davidson, P. Michael; Critzer, Faith J.; Taylor, T. Matthew (28 February 2013). "Naturally Occurring Antimicrobials for Minimally Processed Foods". Annual Review of Food Science and Technology. Annual Reviews. 4 (1): 163–190. doi:10.1146/annurev-food-030212-182535. ISSN 1941-1413.
Anstice Carroll; Embree De Persiis Vona; Gianna De Persiis Vona (2006). The Dictionary of Wholesome Foods: A Passionate A-to-Z Guide to the Earth's Healthy Offerings, with More Than 140 Delicious, Nutritious Recipes. Da Capo Press. pp. 16–. ISBN 978-1-56924-395-4. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013. "The name "basil" comes from the Greek word for "king" — so greatly did the Greeks esteem this king of herbs. Herbe royale, the French respectfully call it. In Italy basil serves the goddess Love; a sprig of it worn by a suitor bespeaks his loving ..."
Tova Navarra (1 January 2004). The Encyclopedia of Vitamins, Minerals, and Supplements. Infobase Publishing. pp. 25–. ISBN 978-1-4381-2103-1. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013. "There is varied folklore pertaining to basil. To the French, basil is the herbe royale (royal herb); Jewish lore holds that basil offers strength during fasting. To the Italians, basil symbolizes love, and to the Greeks, hate, although the Greek word ..."
Nancy Arrowsmith (2009). Essential Herbal Wisdom: A Complete Exploration of 50 Remarkable Herbs. Llewellyn Worldwide. pp. 105–. ISBN 978-0-7387-1488-2. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013. "During one of their talks, Satan told God to pick a bunch of basil flowers, lay them under his pillow, and sleep on them overnight. In the morning, God should take them to a virgin, have her smell them, and she would conceive. This one time ..."
Bill Neal (1992). Gardener's Latin. London: Robert Hale. p. 16. ISBN 0709051069.
"Blessing of the Waters known as Agiasmos conducted by a Greek Orthodox priest". Archived from the original on 7 March 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
Mercia MacDermott (1998). Bulgarian Folk Customs. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. pp. 114–. ISBN 978-1-85302-485-6. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
The Complete Book of Greek Cooking. HarperPerennial. 1991. p. 7. ISBN 9780060921293.
Amy Felder, CEPC (7 March 2007). Savory Sweets: From Ingredients to Plated Desserts. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 92–. ISBN 978-0-470-07968-3. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
Lucy Bregman (2010). Religion, Death, and Dying. ABC-CLIO. pp. 136–. ISBN 978-0-313-35180-8. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013. "A basil-like tulsi leaf, which is considered to be a holy plant, may be placed in the mouth as well."
Robin Nelson-Shellenbarger (25 February 2013). Family Herbal Wellness. Booktango. pp. 38–. ISBN 978-1-4689-2481-7. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013.

Plants, Fine Art Prints

Plants Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from ""
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World