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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Santalales

Familia: Olacaceae
Genera: DulaciaOlaxPtychopetalum

Olacaceae R.Br. Narr. Exped. Zaire, 452. (1818) nom. cons.

Type genus: Olax L. Sp. Pl. 1: 34. (1753)

Note: This is a view of Olacaceae s.s. sensu Nickrent (2010 & 2019) and Stevens (2021), however, APG IV (2016) and Govaerts et al. (2020) prefer to maintain the family s.l. pending further research see Discussion Page.

Brown, R. 1818. Narrative of an Expedition to Explore the River Zaire 452.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181(1): 1–20. DOI: 10.1111/boj.12385 Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Olacaceae in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 May 13. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Olacaceae. Published online. Accessed: May 13 2020.
Nickrent, D.L., Malécot, V., Vidal-Russell, R. & Der, J.P. 2010. A revised classification of Santalales. Taxon 59(2): 538–558. DOI: 10.1002/tax.592019 JSTOR PDF. Reference page.
Nickrent, D.L., Anderson, F. & Kuijt, J. 2019. Inflorescence evolution in Santalales: integrating morphological characters and molecular phylogenetics. American Journal of Botany 106(3): 402-414. DOI: 10.1002/ajb2.1250 PDF Reference page.
Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page. 2014. Olacaceae. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 Jan. 25.

Vernacular names
中文: 铁青树科

Olacaceae is a family of flowering plants in the order Santalales. They are woody plants, native throughout the tropical regions of the world. As of July 2021, the circumscription of the family varies; some sources maintain a broad family, others split it into seven segregate families.


The 1998 APG system and the 2003 APG II system assign it to the order Santalales in the clade core eudicots. Prior to the advent of molecular data, the circumscription of the family Olacaceae varied widely between different authorities.[2] Among these various classifications, about 30 genera were included in the family. 15 genera are recognized for Olacaceae by the Germplasm Resources Information Network. The phylogenetic investigation published in 2008 recovered seven clades that were well-supported by molecular and morphological characters, but no formal taxonomic reorganization of the family was proposed. For this reason, Olacaceae in the broad sense was adopted by the APG III-system.[1] The formal reconfiguration of this family (as well as the rest of the order Santalales) was published by Nickrent and co-workers in 2010[3] and this concept is shown below. Olacaceae in the broad sense was split into seven families, and the genus Schoepfia was placed with Arjona and Quinchamalium (both previously Santalaceae) in the family Schoepfiaceae.

Olacaceae sensu stricto

Dulacia - 13 species of South America
Olax - ca 40 species of the Old World tropics
Ptychopetalum - 2 species of tropical South America and 2 species of western and central Africa


Anacolosa - 16 species of the Old World tropics
Aptandra - 3 species in tropical America and 1 species in Africa
Cathedra - 5 species of South America
Chaunochiton - 3 species of tropical America
Harmandia - one species in southeastern Asia
Hondurodendron - one species in Honduras
Ongokea - one species in Africa
Phanerodiscus - 3 species of Madagascar


Curupira - one species in Amazonian Brazil
Douradoa - one species in Brazil
Malania - one species in China
Ximenia - 10 species of the Old and New World tropics


Coula - one species in tropical western Africa
Minquartia - one species in tropical America
Ochanostachys - one species in western Malaysia


Diogoa - 2 species of tropical Africa
Engomegoma - one species of tropical Africa
Scorodocarpus - one species in tropical Asia
Strombosia - 3 species of tropical Asia and 6 species of tropical Africa
Strombosiopsis - 3 species of tropical Africa
Tetrastylidium - 2 species of South America


Erythropalum scandens

Erythropalum - one species of Indomalaysia
Heisteria - ca 33 species of tropical America and 3 species in Africa
Maburea - one species in Guyana


Octoknema - 14 species of tropical Africa

Unplaced genus

Brachynema - morphological cladistic analysis places this genus in Ericales,[4] and no genetic study has yet been published


Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
Valéry Malécot and Daniel L. Nickrent. 2008. "Molecular Phylogenetic Relationships of Olacaceae and Related Santalales". Systematic Botany 33(1):97-106.
Nickrent DL, Malécot V, Vidal-Russell R & Der J (2010) A revised classification of Santalales. Taxon 59(2): 538-558.
Malécot V, Nickrent DL, Baas P, van den Oever L, Lobreau-Callen D (2004) A morphological cladistic analysis of Olacaceae. Syst. Bot. 29(3): 569-586.

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