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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Orchidaceae
Subfamilia: Orchidoideae
Tribus: Orchideae
Subtribus: Orchidinae
Genus: Orchis
Subgenera: O. subg. Masculae – O. subg. Orchis

Sectiones: O. sect. Anthropophorae – O. sect. Italicae – O. sect. Masculae – O. sect. Orchis – O. sect. Provinciales – O. sect. Pusillae – O. sect. Robustocalcare

Species: O. adenocheila – O. anatolicaO. anthropophora – O. brancifortii – O. galilaea – O. italica – O. laeta – O. mascula – O. militaris – O. olbiensis – O. pallens – O. patens – O. pauciflora – O. provincialis – O. punctulata – O. purpurea – O. quadripunctata – O. simia – O. sitiaca – O. spitzelii – O. troodi

Subspecies: O. mascula. subsp. ichnusae – O. mascula. subsp. laxifloriformis – O. mascula. subsp. scopulorum – O. mascula. subsp. speciosa O. militaris. subsp. stevenii O. patens. subsp. canariensis – O. purpurea. subsp. caucasica – O. simia. subsp. taubertiana O. spitzelii. subsp. cazorlensis – O. spitzelii. subsp. nitidifolia

Nothospecies: O. × algeriensis – O. × angusticruris – O. × aurunca – O. × bergonii – O. × beyrichii – O. × bispurium – O. × bivonae – O. × buelii – O. × caesii – O. × calliantha – O. × chabalensis – O. × colemanii – O. × fallax – O. × fitzii – O. × hybrida – O. × klopfensteiniae – O. × kretzschmariorum – O. × ligustica – O. × loreziana – O. × lucensis – O. × macra – O. × palanchonii – O. × penzigiana – O. × permixta – O. × petterssonii – O. × plessidiaca – O. × pseudoanatolica – O. × serraniana – O. × sezikiana – O. × spuria – O. × thriftiensis – O. × tochniana – O. × willingiorum – O. × wulffiana

Nothosubspecies: O. × angusticruris. nothosubsp. angusticruris – O. × angusticruris. nothosubsp. transcaucasica – O. × beyrichii. nothosubsp. beyrichii – O. × beyrichii. nothosubsp. golestanica – O. × loreziana. nothosubsp. kisslingii – O. × loreziana. nothosubsp. loreziana – O. × penzigiana. nothosubsp. jailae – O. × penzigiana. nothosubsp. navarrensis – O. × penzigiana. nothosubsp. penzigiana – O. × penzigiana. nothosubsp. sardoa – O. × petterssonii. nothosubsp. incantata – O. × petterssonii. nothosubsp. petterssonii – O. × wulffiana. nothosubsp. suckowii – O. × wulffiana. nothosubsp. wulffiana

Orchis Tourn. ex L., Sp. Pl.: 943: (1753)

Type species: Orchis militaris L., Sp. Pl.: 941 (1753)


Abrochis Neck., Elem. Bot. 3: 130 (1790), opus utiq. oppr.
Zoophora Bernh., Syst. Verz.: 308 (1800)
Strateuma Salisb., Trans. Hort. Soc. London 1: 290 (1812)
Aceras R.Br. in W.T.Aiton, Hortus Kew. 5: 191 (1813)
× Orchiaceras E.G.Camus, J. Bot. (Morot) 6: 107 (1892)
Androrchis D.Tyteca & E.Klein, J. Eur. Orch. 40: 539 (2008)

Native distribution areas:

Northern Europe
Denmark, Finland, Føroyar, Great Britain, Ireland, Norway, Sweden.
Middle Europe
Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland.
Southwestern Europe
Baleares, Corse, France, Portugal, Sardegna, Spain.
Southeastern Europe
Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Kriti, Romania, Sicilia, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia.
Eastern Europe
Belarus, Baltic States, Krym, Central European Russia, East European Russia, North European Russia, South European Russia, Northwest European Russia, Ukraine.
Northern Africa
Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia.
Canary Islands, Madeira.
Altay, Buryatiya, Chita, Irkutsk Krasnoyarsk, Tuva, West Siberia.
Middle Asia
North Caucasus, Transcaucasus.
Western Asia
Afghanistan, Cyprus, East Aegean Islands, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon-Syria, Palestine, Turkey.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 939. Reference page.

Additional references

Kretzschmar, H., Eccarius, W. & Dietrich, H. 2007. Die Orchideengattungen Anacamptis, Orchis, Neotinea. EchinoMedia-Verlag, Bürgel. Table of contents. ISBN 978-3937-10711-0. Reference page.
Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.W. & Rasmussen, F.N. (eds.) 2001. Genera Orchidacearum Volume 2: Orchidoideae (Part one); page 333 ff., Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850710-0


Global Biodiversity Information Facility. 2023. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset. Taxon: Orchis. Accessed: 2023 May 8.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2023. Orchis in Kew Science Plants of the World Online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2023 May 8. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2023. Orchis. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2023. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2023 May 8. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2023. World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. . Orchis. Accessed: 8 May 2023.
International Plant Names Index. 2023. Orchis. Published online. Accessed: 8 May 2023. 2023. Orchis. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 8 May 2023.

Vernacular names

العربية: سحلب
azərbaycanca: Səhləb
беларуская: Ятрышнік
čeština: Vstavač
Deutsch: Knabenkräuter
eesti: Käpp
suomi: Pallerokämmekät
עברית: סחלב
hornjoserbsce: Pihawka
magyar: Kosbor
հայերեն: Խոլորձ
ქართული: ჯადვარი
қазақша: Сүйсін
перем коми: Орхис
коми: Орхис
Latina: Orchis
lietuvių: Gegužraibė
latviešu: Dzegužpuķes
мокшень: Орхис
олык марий: Орхис
кырык мары: Орхис
Plattdüütsch: Adammetjes-en-evaatjes
norsk: Vårmarihandslekta
ирон: Æнæзæнæджыхос
polski: Storczyk
русский: Ятрышник
slovenčina: Vstavač
српски / srpski: Каћун / Kaćun
Seeltersk: Kuukuuksbloume
svenska: Nycklar
Türkçe: Salep
удмурт: Ашальчи
українська: Зозулинець
vepsän kel’: Jumalankäzi
中文: 红门兰属
中文(简体): 红门兰属

Orchis is a genus in the orchid family (Orchidaceae), occurring mainly in Europe and Northwest Africa, and ranging as far as Tibet, Mongolia, and Xinjiang.[1] The name is from the Ancient Greek ὄρχις orchis, meaning "testicle", from the appearance of the paired subterranean tuberoids.[2]

These terrestrial orchids have root tubers instead of pseudobulbs. They are extremely diverse in appearance. They produce an erect stem. The inflorescence is a cylindrical to globular spike, 5–15 cm (2–6 in) long, with yellow, red to purple flowers. They start flowering at the base, slowly progressing upwards, except for the Monkey orchid (Orchis simia), which flowers in reverse order.

The original genus Orchis used to contain more than 1,300 names. Since it was polyphyletic, it has been divided by Pridgeon et al., into several new genera (see Reference): Ponerorchis, Schizodium, Steveniella. They can be found in tropical Rainforest and semi-desert regions, near the seashore and in the tundra. The majority of neotropical orchid species can be found in southern Central America, northwest South America

As of June 2014, the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families accepts 21 species, along with a number of subspecies:[3]

Orchis adenocheila Czerniak. (Iran)
Orchis anatolica Boiss. – Anatolian orchid (Cyprus, Turkey, Southern Aegean Islands, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Iran)
Orchis anthropophora (L.) All. (Western Europe to Mediterranean)
Orchis brancifortii Biv. (Southern Italy, Sicilia, Sardinia)
Orchis galilaea (Bornm. & M.Schulze) Schltr. (Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine)
Orchis italica Poir. – Man orchid, Italian orchid (Mediterranean)
Orchis mascula (L.) L. – Early purple orchid, (N. & C. Europe to Iran, Canary Islands)
Orchis mascula subsp. ichnusae Corrias
Orchis mascula subsp. laxifloriformis Rivas Goday & B.Rodr.
Orchis mascula subsp. mascula
Orchis mascula subsp. scopulorum (Summerh.) H.Sund. ex H.Kretzschmar, Eccarius & H.Dietr.
Orchis mascula subsp. speciosa (Mutel) Hegi
Orchis militaris L. – Military orchid (Europe to Mongolia)
Orchis militaris subsp. militaris
Orchis militaris subsp. stevenii (Rchb.f.) B.Baumann & al.
Orchis olbiensis Reut. ex Gren. (NW. Italy - to NW. Africa)
Orchis pallens L. – Pale-flowered orchid (Europe to Caucasus)
Orchis patens Desf. (Central Mediterranean to NW. Africa)
Orchis patens subsp. canariensis (Lindl.) Asch. & Graebn.
Orchis patens subsp. patens
Orchis pauciflora Ten. (Albania, Corsica, Greece, Italy, Crete and Yugoslavia)
Orchis provincialis Balb. ex Lam. & DC. (SC. & S. Europe to Caucasus, NW Africa)
Orchis punctulata Steven ex Lindl. – Small-dotted orchid (SE. Europe to W. Asia)
Orchis purpurea Huds. – Lady orchid, purple orchid (Europe to Caucasus, Algeria)
Orchis purpurea subsp. caucasica (Regel) B.Baumann & al.
Orchis purpurea subsp. purpurea
Orchis quadripunctata Cirillo ex Ten. – Four-spotted orchid (Sardinia to Eastern Mediterranean)
Orchis simia Lam. – Monkey orchid (Europe to Iran, N. Africa)
Orchis simia subsp. simia
Orchis simia subsp. taubertiana (B.Baumann & H.Baumann) Kreutz
Orchis sitiaca (Renz) P.Delforge
Orchis spitzelii Saut. ex W.D.J.Koch – Spitzel's orchid (Sweden (Gotland), E. Spain to Caucasus, NW. Africa)
Orchis spitzelii subsp. cazorlensis (Lacaita) D.Rivera & Lopez Velez
Orchis spitzelii subsp. nitidifolia (W.P.Teschner) Soó
Orchis spitzelii subsp. spitzelii
Orchis troodi (Renz) P.Delforge

Natural hybrids

As of June 2014, the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families accepts 37 hybrid species, along with a number of hybrid subspecies:[3]

Orchis × algeriensis B.Baumann & H.Baumann (O. patens × O. spitzelii)
Orchis × angusticruris Franch. (O. purpurea × O. simia) (Europe to Caucasus)
Orchis × angusticruris nothosubsp. angusticruris (O. purpurea subsp. purpurea × O. simia)
Orchis × angusticruris nothosubsp. transcaucasica B.Baumann & al. (O. purpurea subsp. caucasuca × O. simia)
Orchis × apollinaris W.Rossi & al. (O. italica × O. simia) (Italy)
Orchis × aurunca W.Rossi & Minut. (O. pauciflora × O. provincialis)
Orchis × bergonii Nanteuil (O. anthropophora × O. simia) (Western Mediterranean)
Orchis × beyrichii (Rchb.f.) A.Kern. (O. militaris × O. simia) (Europe to Turkey)
Orchis × beyrichii nothosubsp. beyrichii (O. militaris subsp. militaris × O. simia)
Orchis × beyrichii nothosubsp. golestanica (Renz) H.Kretzschmar, Eccarius & H.Dietr. (O. militaris subsp. stevenii × O. simia)
Orchis × bispurium (G.Keller) H.Kretzschmar, Eccarius & H.Dietr. (O. anthropophora × O. militaris × O. purpurea)
Orchis × bivonae Tod. (O. anthropophora × O. italica) (Southern Europe)
Orchis × buelii Wildh. (O. provincialis × O. quadripunctata)
Orchis × caesii De Angelis & Fumanti (O. italica × O. purpurea)
Orchis × calliantha Renz & Taubenheim (O. punctulata × O. simia) (Turkey)
Orchis × chabalensis B.Baumann & al. (O. militaris subsp. stevenii × O. punctulata)
Orchis × colemanii Cortesi (O. mascula × O. pauciflora)
Orchis × fallax (De Not.) Willk. (O. patens × O. provincialis)
Orchis × fitzii Hautz. (O. anatolica × O. mascula) (Turkey)
Orchis × hybrida (Lindl.) Boenn. ex Rchb. (O. militaris × O. purpurea) (Europe)
Orchis × klopfensteiniae P.Delforge (O. pallens × O. spitzelii) (SW Europe)
Orchis × kretzschmariorum B.Baumann & H.Baumann (O. anatolica × O. provincialis)
Orchis × ligustica Ruppert (O. mascula × O. patens) (Mediterranean)
Orchis × loreziana Brügger(O. mascula × O. pallens) (Europe)
Orchis × loreziana nothosubsp. kisslingii (Beck) Potucek (O. mascula subsp. speciosa × O. pallens) (Eastern Europe)
Orchis × loreziana nothosubsp. loreziana (O. mascula subsp. mascula × O. pallens) (Central Europe)
Orchis × lucensis Antonetti & Bertolini (O. pauciflora × O. simia)
Orchis × macra Lindl. (O. anthropophora × O. purpurea) (Europe)
Orchis × orphanidesii (E.G.Camus) B.Bock (O. anthropophora × O. mascula)
Orchis × palanchonii G.Foelsche & W.Foelsche (O. olbiensis × O. pauciflora)
Orchis × penzigiana A.Camus (O. mascula × O. provincialis)
Orchis × penzigiana nothosubsp. jailae (Soó) H.Kretzschmar, Eccarius & H.Dietr. (O. mascula subsp. speciosa × O. provincialis)
Orchis × penzigiana nothosubsp. penzigiana (O. mascula subsp. mascula × O. provincialis)
Orchis × penzigiana nothosubsp. sardoa Scrugli & M.P.Grasso (O. mascula subsp. ichnusae × O. provincialis)
Orchis × permixta Soó (O. mascula subsp. signifera × O. pallens × O. provincialis) (Crimea)
Orchis × petterssonii G.Keller ex Pett. (O. mascula × O. spitzelii) (Europe, NW Africa)
Orchis × petterssonii nothosubsp. incantata (P.Delforge) H.Kretzschmar, Eccarius & H.Dietr. (O. mascula subsp. laxifloriformis × O. spitzelii subsp. cazorlensis)
Orchis × petterssonii nothosubsp. petterssonii (O. mascula subsp. mascula × O. spitzelii subsp. cazorlensis)
Orchis × plessidiaca Renz (O. pallens × O. provincialis) (SE Europe to Krym)
Orchis × pseudoanatolica H.Fleischm. (O. pauciflora × O. quadripunctata) (SE Europe)
Orchis × schebestae Griebl (O. mascula × O. quadripunctata)
Orchis × serraniana P.Delforge (O. mascula subsp. laxifloriformis × O. olbiensis)
Orchis × sezikiana B.Baumann & H.Baumann (O. anatolica × O. quadripunctata)
Orchis × spuria Rchb.f. (O. anthropophora × O. militaris) (Europe)
Orchis × thriftiensis Renz (O. anatolica × O. pauciflora)
Orchis × tochniana Kreutz & Scraton (O. italica × O. punctulata) (Cyprus)
Orchis × willingiorum B.Baumann & H.Baumann (O. provincialis × O. spitzelii)
Orchis × wulffiana Soó (O. punctulata × O. purpurea) (Crimea to caucasus)
Orchis × wulffiana nothosubsp. suckowii (Kümpel) B.Baumann & al. (O. punctulata × O. purpurea subsp. caucasica)
Orchis × wulffiana nothosubsp. wulffiana (O. punctulata × O. purpurea subsp. purpurea)

Intergeneric hybrids

Orchiophrys (Ophrys x Orchis)
Orchiserapias (Orchis x Serapias)

See also

List of taxa named after human genitals


Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Alberta Native Plant Council Rare Vascular Plants of Alberta (2001), p. 52, at Google Books

"Search for Orchis". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2014-06-29.

Pridgeon, A.M.; R.M. Bateman; A.V. Cox; J.R. Hapeman & M.W. Chase (1997). "Phylogenetics of subtribe Orchidinae (Orchidoideae, Orchidaceae) based on nuclear ITS sequences. 1. Intergeneric relationships and polyphyly of Orchis sensu lato". Lindleyana. 12 (2): 89–109.
Bateman, R.M.; Pridgeon, A.M.; Chase, M.W. (1997). "Phylogenetics of subtribe Orchidinae (Orchidoideae, Orchidaceae) based on nuclear ITS sequences. 2. Infrageneric relationships and reclassification to achieve monophyly of Orchis sensu stricto". Lindleyana. 12: 113–141.
Wucherpfennig, W. (1999). "Gedanken zu einer Neuordnung der Gattung Orchis L.". Nachtrag. Jour. Eur. Orch. 31: 329–346. (in German)
Aceto S, Caputo P, Cozzolino S, Gaudio L, Moretti A (1999). "Phylogeny and evolution of Orchis and allied genera based on ITS DNA variation: morphological gaps and molecular continuity". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 13 (1): 67–76. doi:10.1006/mpev.1999.0628. PMID 10508540.

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