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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fagales

Familia: Betulaceae
Subfamilia: Coryloideae
Genus: Ostrya
Species: O. carpinifolia – O. chinensis – O. japonicaO. knowltonii – O. rehderiana – O. trichocarpa – O. virginiana – O. yunnanensis
O. carpinifolia - O. chisosensis - O. japonica -


Ostrya Scop., Fl. Carniol. 414. (1760). nom. cons.

Type species: Ostrya carpinifolia Scop., Fl. Carniol., ed. 2, 2: 244. (1772).


Zugilus Raf., Fl. Ludov.: 159 (1817)


Ostrya Hill, The British Herbal 513. (1757) nom. rej. vide Carpinus L., Sp. Pl. 2: 998. (1753).
Primary references

Scopoli, J.A. 1760. Flora Carniolica exhibens plantas Carniolae indigenas et distributas in classes naturales cum differentiis specificis, synonymis recentiorum, locis natalibus, nominibus incolarum, observationibus selectis, viribus medicis. xxii + 607 pp., Viennae: Sumptibus Joannis Thomae Trattner. DOI: 10.3931/e-rara-62550 BHL Biblioteca Digital PDF. Reference page.

Additional references

Davis, P.H. (ed.) 1965–1988. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. 9 vols. + Supplement. University Press, Edinburgh. Reference page.
Bobrov, E.G. 1936. Ostrya. Pp. 201 in Komarov, V.L. (eds.), Flora URSS (Flora Unionis Rerumpublicarum Sovieticarum Socialisticarum) V. [Saururaceae – Polygonaceae]. Russian page 1-735 - English page 1-587, Academia Scientiarum URSS, Mosqua, Leningrad. DJVU BHL (English translation) Reference page.
Furlow, J.J. 1997. Ostrya. Pp. - in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.), Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 3: Magnoliophyta: Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae. 590 pp. Oxford University Press, New York / Oxford, ISBN 0-19-511246-6. efloras Reference page.
Li, P.C. & Skvortsov, A.K. 1999. Ostrya. Pp. 300 in Wu, Zh.Y. & Raven, P.H. (eds.), Flora of China. Volume 4: Cycadaceae through Fagaceae. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, ISBN 0-915279-70-3. efloras PDF Reference page.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Ostrya in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 March 12. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Ostrya. Published online. Accessed: 12 March 2021. 2021. Ostrya. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 March 12.

Vernacular names
български: Воден габър
čeština: Habrovec
dansk: Humlebøg
English: Hop-hornbeam
suomi: Humalapyökit
ქართული: უხრავი
Nederlands: Hopbeuk
norsk: Humlebøkslekten
Ирон: Æхсæмæрæг
polski: Chmielograb
русский: Хмелеграб
svenska: Humlebokssläktet
Türkçe: Kayacık

Ostrya is a genus of eight to 10 small deciduous trees belonging to the birch family Betulaceae. Common names include hop-hornbeam and hophornbeam. It may also be called ironwood, a name shared with a number of other plants.

The genus is native in southern Europe, southwest and eastern Asia, and North and Central America.[1] They have a conical or irregular crown and a scaly, rough bark. They have alternate and double-toothed birch-like leaves 3–10 cm long. The flowers are produced in spring, with male catkins 5–10 cm long and female aments 2–5 cm long. The fruit form in pendulous clusters 3–8 cm long with 6–20 seeds; each seed is a small nut 2–4 mm long, fully enclosed in a bladder-like involucre.[2]

The wood is very hard and heavy. The genus name Ostrya is derived from the Greek word ὀστρύα (ostrúa), which may be related to ὄστρακον (óstrakon) "shell (of an animal)".[3] Regarded as a weed tree by some foresters[who?] , this hard and stable wood was historically used to fashion plane soles.

Ostrya species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including winter moth, walnut sphinx, and Coleophora ostryae.

Ostrya has the following species:[1][4]

Ostrya carpinifolia Scop. – European hop-hornbeam - Mediterranean region of southern Europe, Middle-east, Turkey, Lebanon, Caucasus
Ostrya chisosensis Correll – Chisos hophornbeam, Big Bend hophornbeam - endemic to Big Bend National Park in Texas
Ostrya japonica Sarg. – Japanese hophornbeam - Japan, Korea, northern China
Ostrya knowltonii Coville – Knowlton hophornbeam, western hophornbeam, wolf hophornbeam - Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas
Ostrya multinervis Rehd. – Central Chinese hop-hornbeam - central China
Ostrya rehderiana Chun – Zhejiang hop-hornbeam - Zhejiang Province in China
Ostrya trichocarpa D.Fang & Y.S.Wang – Guangxi Province in China
Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch – eastern hophornbeam, American hophornbeam, ironwood - eastern US, eastern Canada, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras
Ostrya yunnanensis W.K.Hu – Yunnan hop-hornbeam - Yunnan Province in China
†Ostrya oregoniana (fossil)
†Ostrya scholzii (fossil)

Fossil record

†Ostrya scholzii fossil seeds of the Chattian stage, Oligocene, are known from the Oberleichtersbach Formation in the Rhön Mountains, central Germany.[5]
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ostrya.

Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Flora of North America, vol 3, hop-hornbeam, Ostrya Scopoli, Fl. Carniol. 414. 1760.
"Ostrya". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2019-03-03.
Biota of North America Program, 2013 county distribution maps

The floral change in the tertiary of the Rhön mountains (Germany) by Dieter Hans Mai - Acta Paleobotanica 47(1): 135-143, 2007.

Rushforth, K. (1985). Ostrya. The Plantsman 7: 208-212.
Flora of China: Ostrya
Flora Europaea: Ostrya

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