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Oxydendrum arboreum

Oxydendrum arboreum

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Ordo: Ericales

Familia: Ericaceae
Subfamilia: Vaccinioideae
Tribus: Oxydendreae
Genus: Oxydendrum
Species: Oxydendrum arboreum

Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC. (1839)

Andromeda arborea L.
Lyonia arborea D.Don

Native distribution areas:

Continental:Northern America
Regional: Southeastern USA
USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia)

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

De Candolle, A.P. 1839 ["1838"]. Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis, sive enumeratio contracta ordinum, generum, specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarum, juxta methodi naturalis normas digesta, Pars 7, Sistens Compositarum tribus ultimas et ordinis Mantissam. 801 pp. Treuttel et Würtz, Parisiis [Paris]. BHL Reference page. : 7(2): 601.


Hassler, M. 2020. Oxydendrum arboreum. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2020. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2020 May 25. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Oxydendrum arboreum in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2020 May 25. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Oxydendrum arboreum. Published online. Accessed: May 25 2020. 2020. Oxydendrum arboreum. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 25 May 2020.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Oxydendrum arboreum in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 09-Oct-10.

Vernacular names
English: Sourwood

Oxydendrum arboreum, /ˌɒksɪˈdɛndrəm ɑːrˈbɔːriəm/[2] the sourwood or sorrel tree, is the sole species in the genus Oxydendrum, in the family Ericaceae. It is native to eastern North America, from southern Pennsylvania south to northwest Florida and west to southern Illinois; it is most common in the lower chain of the Appalachian Mountains. The tree is frequently seen as a component of oak-heath forests.[3][4]


Sourwood is a small tree or large shrub, growing to 10–20 m (33–66 ft) tall with a trunk up to 50 cm (20 in) diameter. Occasionally on extremely productive sites, this species can reach heights in excess of 30 meters and 60 cm diameter. The leaves are alternately arranged, deciduous, 8–20 cm (3.1–7.9 in) long and 4–9 cm (1.6–3.5 in) broad, with a finely serrated margin; they are dark green in summer, but turn vivid red in fall. The flowers are white, bell-shaped, 6–9 mm ( 1/4 to 1/3 inch) long, produced on 15–25 cm (5.9–9.8 in) long panicles. The fruit is a small woody capsule. The roots are shallow, and the tree grows best when there is little root competition; it also requires acidic soils for successful growth. The leaves can be chewed (but should not be swallowed) to help alleviate a dry-feeling mouth.
Raceme of flowers

The bark is gray with a reddish tinge, deeply furrowed and scaly. Branchlets at first are light yellow green, but later turn reddish brown. The wood is reddish brown, with paler sapwood; it is heavy, hard, and close-grained, and will take a high polish. Its specific gravity is 0.7458, with a density of 46.48 lb/cu ft.

The winter buds are axillary, minute, dark red, and partly immersed in the bark. Inner scales enlarge when spring growth begins.

Leaves are alternate, four to seven inches long, 1.5 to 2.5 inches wide, oblong to oblanceolate, wedge-shaped at the base, serrate, and acute or acuminate. Leaf veins are feather-veined, the midrib is conspicuous. They emerge from the bud revolute, bronze green and shining, and smooth; when full grown, they are dark green, shining above, and pale and glaucous below. In autumn, they turn bright scarlet. Petioles are long and slender, with stipules wanting. They are heavily laden with acid.

In June and July, cream-white flowers are borne in terminal panicles of secund racemes seven to eight inches long; rachis and short pedicels are downy. The calyx is five-parted and persistent; lobes are valvate in bud. The corolla is ovoid-cylindric, narrowed at the throat, cream-white, and five-toothed. The 10 stamens are inserted on the corolla; filaments are wider than the anthers; anthers are two-celled. The pistil is ovary superior, ovoid, and five-celled; the style is columnar; the stigma is simple; the disk is ten-toothed, and ovules are many.

The fruit is a capsule, downy, five-valved, five-angled, and tipped by the persistent style; the pedicels are curving.[5]
Cultivation and uses

The sourwood is perfectly hardy in the north and a worthy ornamental tree in lawns and parks. Its late bloom makes it desirable, and its autumnal coloring is particularly beautiful and brilliant. The leaves are heavily charged with acid, and to some extent have the poise of those of the peach.[5] The leaves are also a laxative.[6]

It is renowned for nectar, and for the honey which is produced from it.[7][8] Juice from its blooms is used to make sourwood jelly. The shoots were used by the Cherokee and the Catawba to make arrowshafts.
In Appalachian culture

Sourwood Mountain is a popular old-time tune in the Appalachian region of the United States.


Stritch, L. (2018). "Oxydendrum arboreum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T62002889A62003254. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T62002889A62003254.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
Sunset Western Garden Book. 1995. pp. 606–607.
"The Natural Communities of Virginia Classification of Ecological Community Groups (Version 2.3)". Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. 2010. Archived from the original on 2009-01-15.
Schafale, M. P.; A. S., Weakley (1990). Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina: third approximation. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation.
Keeler, Harriet L. (1900). Our Native Trees and How to Identify Them. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 192–194.
"Sourwood | Augusta, GA - Official Website". Retrieved 2019-02-01.
Honey Bee Biology and Beekeeping, Dewey M. Caron and Lawrence John Conner, 2013. page 151
National Audubon Society Field Guide to Trees, Eastern Region, North America, 2003, page 626

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