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Paeonia broteri

Paeonia broteri

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Saxifragales

Familia: Paeoniaceae
Genus: Paeonia
Sectio: P. sect. Paeonia
Subsectio: P. subsect. Foliolatae
Species: Paeonia broteri

Paeonia broteri Boiss. & Reut., Diagn. Pl. Nov. Hisp.: 4 (1842), nom. cons.

Typus: “Paeonia nov. sp.? Colmenar viejo, Choras (Chozas) & Miraflores, in dumetis, 14.15.16. mai 1841 ”, Reuter s.n. (Lectotypus designated by Burdet et al., 1988: G; isolectotypes BM G K)


Paeonia corallina f. broteri (Boiss. & Reut.) Voss, Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed. 3, 39. 1894.
Paeonia officinalis subsp. broteri (Boiss. & Reut.) Rivas Goday & Borja, Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 19: 352. 1961, comb. inval.
Paeonia corallina var. broteri (Boiss. & Reut.) Coss., Fl. Atlant. 2: 53. 1887.
Paeonia mascula var. broteri (Boiss. & Reut.) Gürke, Pl. Eur. (Richter) 2: 401. 1897.
Paeonia broteri var. ovatifolia Boiss. & Reut., Diagn. Pl. Nov. Hisp. 4. 1842.
Paeonia corallina proles ovatifolia (Boiss. & Reut.) Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 1: 144. 1893.
Paeonia lusitanica proles ovatifolia (Boiss. & Reut.) Samp., Man. Fl. Portug. 182. 1910.
Paeonia lusitanica var. ovatifolia (Boiss. & Reut.) Cout., Bol. Soc. Brot. ser. 2 10: 91. 1935.
Paeonia mascula var. ovatifolia (Boiss. & Reut.) Cout., Fl. Portugal 240. 1913.
Paeonia ovatifolia (Boiss. & Reut.) Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 1: 144. 1893.
Paeonia lusitanica Mill., Gard. Dict., ed. 8. n. 6. 1768, nom. rej.
Typus: Spain, Madrid, Sierra de Guadarrama, El Escorial, La Herreria, 30 TVK 0309, 700 m, 2 June 2004, Carrasco et al. 17437SC (Neotypus: MA No. 714084!; isoneotypes: BM, G, K, PE).
Paeonia officinalis var. lusitanica (Mill.) Martyn in Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 9. n. 3. 1807.
Paeonia mascula var. lusitanica (Mill.) Samp., Ann. Sci. Acad. Polytecn. Porto, 4—6: 8 (1911).


Paeonia lusitanica Tausch (1828) = Paeonia officinalis subsp. officinalis

Native distribution areas:
Primary references

Boissier, P.E. & Reuter, G.F. 1842. Diagnoses plantarum novarum Hispanicarum, praesertim in Castella Nova lectarum. Genevae: Ramboz. Biblioteca Digital Reference page.

Additional references

Burdet, H.M., Charpin, A. & Jacquemoud, F. 1988. Types nomenclaturaux des taxa ibériques décrits par Boissier ou Reuter. IX. Orobanchacées á Polygonacées. Candollea 43(2): 727–746. PDF Biblioteca Digital Reference page.
Hong, D.Y. & Castroviejo, S. 2005. Proposal to conserve the name Paeonia broteri against P. lusitanica (Paeoniaceae). Taxon 54(1): 211–212. DOI: 10.2307/25065333 Open access Reference page.
Muñoz Garmendia, J.F. & Navarro, C. 1993. Paeonia. Pp. 144–150 in Castroviejo, S., Aedo, C., Cirujano, S., Laínz, M., Montserrat, P., Morales, R., Muñoz Garmendia, J.F., Navarro, C., Paiva, J.A.R. & Soriano, C. (eds.), Flora Ibérica. Plantas vasculares de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Vol. III. Plumbaginaceae (partim) – Capparaceae. liv + 730 pp., Real Jardín Botánico, C.S.I.C., Madrid. ISBN 84-00-07375-4. PDF. Reference page.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Paeonia broteri in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2020 Nov 17. Reference page.

Paeonia broteri is a perennial, herbaceous species of peony. It is an endemic species of the Iberian Peninsula. It bears rose-pink highly fragrant flowers about 12 cm wide and glossy green leaves. It reaches up to 40 centimetres (16 in) in height.[2]


Paeonia broteri is a perennial, herbaceous plant of 30–80 cm in height. It is a diploid species with ten chromosomes (2n=10).[3]
Roots, stems and leaves

It has carrot-shaped roots up to 3 cm thick, from which the plant regrows early in spring, when conditions are best for plant growth in its home range. It also has thin lateral roots. Its stems are often tinged purple. Its leaves consist of three sets of mostly three leaflets, which may be deeply incised themselves, resulting in ten to thirty oval or longish oval segments (1½-5 or rarely up to 6½ cm wide), with a wedge-shaped foot, a more or less pointy tip, shiny bright green upper surface, and a (nearly) hairless, distinctly blue-green underside.[4]
Paeonia seeds
Flowers, fruits and seeds

The flowers are set individually at the top of the stems, are mostly subtended by one or two bracts looking like a leaf segment, and may be up to 15–16 cm in diameter. It has three, sometimes four, sepals, green with a purple margin, of approximately 3 cm long and 2½ cm wide, with rounded tips. There are five or six magenta or pinkish magenta petals, each 5–6 cm long and 3–4 cm wide. Numerous stamens consist of cream-colored, yellowish or purple filaments topped with yellow anthers. There are mostly two or three (occasionally one or four, rarely five) carpels covered in 2 mm long rust-colored hairs, with at their tips very short red stigmas of 2½ mm wide, their base encircled by a 2 mm high disk. The fruit consists of two to three (seldom one or four) follicles, each of which is up to 2½-4 cm high, and is covered in dense felty hairs which persist when fully grown.[4][5] In its home range, this species has flowers from late March to May,[6] but in The Netherlands flowering occurs in June and early July.[7] The seeds are about 7–8 mm in size, reddish at first but blackish when ripe.[8]
Differences with related species

Paeonia broteri is closely related to Paeonia clusii and shares the same characters except for the different average numbers of leaflet segments: 11–32 in P. broteri, 23–48 in P. clusii subsp. rhodia and 23–96 in P. clusii subsp. clusii. P. broteri also looks like the sympatric P. coriacea, but this species can be distinguished by its hairless carpels and wider leaflet segments (2–8 cm). P. mascula may also be confused with P. broteri, but this has only ten to eighteen (seldom up to twenty one) and larger (4½–18 × 3–9 cm) leaflet segments, while its carpels are mostly hairless and if present the hairs are about 2 mm long, whereas the densely hairy carpels of P. broteri carry hairs about 3 mm long. The distinctiveness of P. coriacea and P. mascula from P. broteri is confirmed by their tetraploidy (2n=20), while P. broteri is a diploid.[4]

The species was named in honor of the Portuguese botanist Félix Avelar Brotero.

Paeonia broteri naturally occurs mostly in the western part of the Iberian Peninsula (most of Portugal and western Spain) except the humid Northwest (north-western Portugal and Green Spain).[9] Two specimens claimed to be from northern Morocco are probably from Spain.[4] Despite its wide range, it is very dispersed through shrubs, oak or pine forests, in limestone soils from 300 to 1,830 m (980 to 6,000 ft) in altitude.[9][10]

In the wild, P. broteri flowers between April and early June. Seeds become ripe in August or September. It grows in meadows, pastures and in the undergrowth of schrubs, pine and oak forests on well-matured soils on limestone, at an altitude between 300 and 1800 m.[4] It is also common in rocky places and screes, particularly in humid spots. It grows together with Adonis vernalis, Cytisus reverchonii, Quercus rotundifolia, Pinus nigra, Pinus pinaster, and Polygonatum odoratum.[5] Plants that grow in different regions vary in the number of flowers per plant, in petal size, the number of stamens per flower, and the number of ovules in each carpel. These differences are related to the dominant pollinators, such as honey bees and bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) in the Sierra de Cazorla and smaller halictid bees in the Sierra de Jaén.[11]

"Paeonia broteri Boiss. & Reut". The Plantlist. Retrieved 2016-08-26.
Page, Martin (1997). The Gardener's Guide to Growing Peonies. David & Charles. ISBN 0-88192-408-3.
Fernandes, A.; Queirós, M. (1971). "Sur la caryologie de quelques plantes récoltées pendant la III Reunion de Botanique Péninsulaire". Mem. Soc. Brot. 21: 343–385.
Hong, De-Yuan (2010). Peonies of the World. London/St. Louis: Kew Publishing/Missouri Botanical Garden. pp. 159–164.
"Paeonia broteroi". Flora Protegida. Retrieved 2016-08-26.
"Paeonia broteroi - (Paeoniaceae)". first-nature. Retrieved 2016-08-26.
"Paeonia broteroi". PlantenTuin Esveld. Retrieved 2016-08-26.
"Paeonia broteroi Boiss. & Reut". Floramu. Retrieved 2016-09-30.
"Paeonia broteri" (PDF). Flora Iberica. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
"Paeonia broteri". Retrieved 22 January 2021.
Sánchez-Lafuente, Alfonso M. (2002). "Floral variation in the generalist perennial herb Paeonia broteroi (Paeoniaceae): differences between regions with different pollinators and herbivores". American Journal of Botany. 89 (8): 1260–1269. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.8.1260. PMID 21665727. Retrieved 2016-08-26.

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