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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Orchidaceae
Subfamilia: Epidendroideae
Tribus: Collabieae
Genus: Phaius
Overview of species (44)

P. amboinensis – P. baconii – P. borneensis – P. callosus – P. columnaris – P. cooperi – P. corymbioides – P. daenikeri – P. ecalcaratus – P. flavus – P. fragilis – P. grandiflorus – P. gratus – P. hainanensis – P. hekouensis – P. indigofer – P. indochinensis – P. labiatus – P. landyae – P. leonidii – P. longicornu – P. luridus – P. lyonii – P. mannii – P. mishmensis – P. montanus – P. nanus – P. occidentalis – P. pauciflorus – P. philippinensis – P. pulchellus – P. reflexipetalus – P. robertsii – P. stenocentron – P. subtrilobus – P. takeoi – P. tanjiewhoei – P. tankervilleae – P. tenuis – P. tetragonus – P. tonkinensis – P. trichoneurus – P. wallichii – P. wenshanensis

Phaius Lour., Fl. Cochinch.: 529 (1790)

Type species: Phaius tankervilleae (Banks) Blume, Mus. Bot. 2: 177 (1856)


Cyanorchis Thouars, Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 19: 317 (1809)
Gastorkis Thouars, Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1: 317 (1809)
Pachyne Salisb., Trans. Hort. Soc. London 1: 299 (1812)
Limatodis Blume, Bijdr.: 375 (1825)
Tankervillia Link, Handbuch 1: 251 (1829)
Hecabe Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 44 (1838)
Pesomeria Lindl., Edwards's Bot. Reg. 24(Misc.): 5 (1838)
Phajus Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bot. Bogor.: 42 (1844), orth. var.

Native distribution areas:

Orchidaceae - Phaius tancarvilleae

Phaius tankervilleae (Typus)

Primary references

Loureiro, 1790. Flora Cochinchinensis 2: 517, 529.
Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.W. & Rasmussen, F.N. (eds.) 2006. Genera Orchidacearum Volume 4 Epidendroideae (Part one); page 149 ff., Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850712-7. Reference page.


Global Biodiversity Information Facility. 2021. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset. Taxon: Phaius. Accessed: 2021 Nov 14.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Phaius in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Nov 14. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Phaius in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Nov 14. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. Phaius. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Nov 14. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Phaius. Published online. Accessed: 14 Nov 2021. 2021. Phaius. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Nov 14.

Vernacular names

English: Swamp orchids
перем коми: Фаюс
коми: Фаюс
lietuvių: Skėtris
кырык мары: Фаюс
удмурт: Фаюс
Tiếng Việt: Chi Hạc đính
中文: 鹤顶兰属

Phaius, commonly known as swamp orchids[2] or 鶴頂蘭屬/鹤顶兰属 (he ding lan shu),[3] is a genus of forty five species of flowering plants in the orchid family, Orchidaceae. They are evergreen, terrestrial herbs which form clumps with crowded, sometimes stem-like pseudobulbs, large, pleated leaves and relatively large, often colourful flowers. Species in this genus are found in the tropical parts of Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Australia, and various islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans.[1] One species is also naturalized in Hawaii, Florida, and the Caribbean.[4]


Orchids in the genus Phaius are evergreen, terrestrial, sympodial herbs with thin underground rhizomes and crowded above ground, sometimes stem-like pseudobulbs. There are several pleated, stalked leaves emerging from the pseudobulb. The flower stalk is unbranched and bears a few to many moderately large, resupinate, often colourful flowers. The sepals and petals are similar in size and shape and the labellum has three lobes and a shallow pouch near its base.[2][3][5][6][7]
Taxonomy and naming

The genus Phaius was first formally described in 1790 by João de Loureiro and the description was published in his book Flora Cochinchinensis.[8][9] The specific epithet (Phaius) is derived from the Ancient Greek word phaios meaning "dusky" or "brown",[10] referring to the brownish colour of the flowers of many species in this genus.[5]
List of species

The following is a list of Phaius species recognised by the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families as at October 2018:[1]

  • Phaius amboinensis Blume (1856)
  • Phaius baconii J.J.Wood & Shim (1994)
  • Phaius borneensis J.J.Sm. (1903)
  • Phaius callosus (Blume) Lindl. (1831)
  • Phaius columnaris C.Z.Tang & S.J.Chen (1985)
  • Phaius cooperi Rolfe (1858)
  • Phaius corymbioides Schltr. (1911)
  • Phaius daenikeri Kraenzl. (1929)
  • Phaius ecalcaratus J.J.Sm., (1911)
  • Phaius flavus (Blume) Lindl., (1831)
  • Phaius fragilis L.O.Williams (1938)
  • Phaius grandiflorus (Nadeaud) Govaerts (2011)
  • Phaius gratus Blume (1856)
  • Phaius hainanensis C.Z.Tang & S.J.Chen (1982)
  • Phaius hekouensis Tsukaya, M.Nakaj. & S.K.Wu (2010)
  • Phaius indigoferus Hassk. (1842)
  • Phaius indochinensis Seidenf. & Ormerod (1995)
  • Phaius labiatus J.J.Sm. (1920)
  • Phaius landyae P.J.Cribb & J.V.Stone (2017)
  • Phaius leonidii P.J.Cribb & J.V.Stone (2017)
  • Phaius longicornu Guillaumin (1957)
  • Phaius luridus Thwaites (1861)
  • Phaius lyonii Ames (1915)
  • Phaius mannii Rchb.f. (1881)
  • Phaius mishmensis (Lindl. & Paxton) Rchb.f. (1857)
  • Phaius montanus Schltr. (1912)
  • Phaius nanus Hook.f. (1890)
  • Phaius occidentalis Schltr. (1903)
  • Phaius pauciflorus (Blume) Blume (1856)
    • Phaius pauciflorus var. pallidus (Ridl.) Holttum (1947)
    • Phaius pauciflorus subsp. pauciflorus
    • Phaius pauciflorus var. punctatus (Lindl.) J.J.Sm. (1920)
    • Phaius pauciflorus subsp. sabahensis J.J.Wood & A.L.Lamb (1993)
    • Phaius pauciflorus var. sumatranus J.J.Sm. (1920)
  • Phaius philippinensis N.E.Br. (1889)
  • Phaius pictus T.E.Hunt (1952) (accepted by Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria)[11]
  • Phaius pulchellus Kraenzl. (1882)
    • Phaius pulchellus var. ambrensis Bosser (1971)
    • Phaius pulchellus var. andrambovatensis Bosser (1971)
    • Phaius pulchellus var. pulchellus
    • Phaius pulchellus var. sandrangatensis Bosser (1971)
  • Phaius reflexipetalus J.J.Wood & Shim (1994)
  • Phaius robertsii F.Muell. (1883)
  • Phaius sinensis Rolfe (1913)
  • Phaius stenocentron Schltr. (1911)
  • Phaius subtrilobus Ames & C.Schweinf. (1920)
  • Phaius takeoi (Hayata) H.J.Su (1989)
  • Phaius tanjiewhoei P.J.Cribb, J.V.Stone & P.O'Byrne (2017)
  • Phaius tankervilleae (Banks ex L'Hér.) Blume (1856)
    • Phaius tankervilleae var. antoninae (P.Balzer) J.V.Stone & P.J.Cribb (2017)
    • Phaius tankervilleae var. australis (F.Muell.) J.V.Stone & P.J.Cribb (2017)
    • Phaius tankervilleae var. baolocensis (Duy, Tao Chen & D.X.Zhang) J.V.Stone & P.J.Cribb (2017)
    • Phaius tankervilleae var. bernaysii (F.Muell. ex Rchb.f.) J.V.Stone & P.J.Cribb (2017)
    • Phaius tankervilleae var. devogelii J.V.Stone & P.J.Cribb (2017)
    • Phaius tankervilleae var. tankervilleae
  • Phaius tenuis Rchb.f. (1857)
  • Phaius tetragonus (Thouars) Rchb.f. (1855)
  • Phaius tonkinensis (Aver.) Aver. [ru] (2005)
  • Phaius trichoneurus Schltr. (1925)
  • Phaius wallichii Lindl. (1831)
  • Phaius wenshanensis F.Y.Liu (1991)


Orchids in the genus Phaius are found in tropical Africa, India, tropical and subtropical China, Malaysia, the Philippines,, Indonesia, New Guinea, New Caledonia, Polynesia and Australia. Nine species, four of which are endemic, occur in China and three species including two endemics are found in Australia. The Australian species are found in Queensland, the Northern Territory and New South Wales.[3][5]


"Phaius". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Jones, David L. (2006). A complete guide to native orchids of Australia including the island territories. Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: New Holland. p. 361. ISBN 1877069124.
Chen, Xinqi; Cribb, Phillip J.; Bell, Alexandra. "Phaius". Flora of China. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
Biota of North America Program, county distribution map
D.L.Jones; T.Hopley; S.M.Duffy (2010). "Phaius". Australian Tropical Rainforest Orchids. Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research (CANBR), Australian Government. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
Weston, Peter H. "Phaius". Royal Botanic Garden Sydney. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
"Genus Phaius". Orchids of New Guinea. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
"Phaius". APNI. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
de Loureiro, João (1790). Flora Cochinchinensis. Lisbon. p. 517. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
Brown, Roland Wilbur (1956). The Composition of Scientific Words. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 168.
"Phaius pictus". Australian Plant Name Index, IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government.

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