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Pterocarya fraxinifolia

Pterocarya fraxinifolia, Photo: Michael Lahanas

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fagales

Familia: Juglandaceae
Subfamilia: Juglandoideae
Genus: Pterocarya
Species: Pterocarya fraxinifolia

Pterocarya fraxinifolia (Lam.) Spach, 1834

Rhus obscura M.Bieb.
Juglans fraxinifolia Poir.
Juglans pterocarpa Michx.
Pterocarya caucasica C.A.Mey.
Pterocarya dumosa Lavallée ex Dippel
Pterocarya pterocarpa (Michx.) Delchev.
Pterocarya spachiana Lavallée
Wallia fraxinifolia (Poir.) Alef.

Native distribution areas:
Primary references

Spach, É. 1834. Histoire Naturelle des Végétaux. Phanérogames. Tome 2. 540 pp. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris. BHL Reference page. : 2: 180.

Additional references

Verloove, F. (2011). Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Pterocarya fraxinifolia en andere opmerkelijke uitheemse rivierbegeleiders in België and Noordwest-Frankrijk Dumortiera 99: 1-10.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2022. Pterocarya fraxinifolia in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2022 Mar 03. Reference page. 2022. Pterocarya fraxinifolia. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 03 Mar 2022.
International Plant Names Index. 2022. Pterocarya fraxinifolia. Published online. Accessed: Mar 03 2022.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Pterocarya fraxinifolia in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Vernacular names
dansk: Kaukasisk Vingevalnød
Deutsch: Kaukasische Flügelnuss
English: Caucasian Wingnut
español: Pterocaria del Cáucaso
فارسی: لرگ
français: Ptérocaryer du Caucase
magyar: Kaukázusi szárnyasdió
italiano: Noce del Caucaso
Nederlands: Kaukasische vleugelnoot
polski: Skrzydłorzech kaukaski
slovenščina: Krilati oreškar
svenska: Kaukasisk vingnöt

Pterocarya fraxinifolia is a species of tree in the Juglandaceae family. It is commonly known as the Caucasian wingnut or Caucasian walnut. It is native to the Caucasian region Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Ukraine and Turkey. It was introduced to France in 1784, and to Great Britain after 1800.[2]

Caucasian wingnut tree

The tree is monoecious and grows to a height of < 30 m, the short, thick bole supporting widely spreading branches to form a rounded structure, not unlike the wych elm. The pinnate leaves can exceed 60 cm in length, comprising 7 - 27 sessile leaflets. The flowers appear in April, the male catkins thick and green, 7.5 – 12.5 cm long, the females longer with less dense flowers, bearing red styles forming fruiting catkins 30 – 50 cm long, the green, winged, nuts approximately 1.8 cm wide.[3]

The species is fast growing and grows best on flat ground or shallow slopes near river banks and in deep moist soils. The climate associated with the distribution of this tree includes mild winters and mild humid summers. It generally grows in mixed stands with other species and rarely grows in pure stands.
Fossil record

Fossils of Pterocarya fraxinifolia have been described from the fossil flora of Kızılcahamam district in Turkey, which is of early Pliocene age.[4]

Bétrisey, S.; Song, Y.; Yousefzadeh, H.; Kozlowski, G. (2019). "Pterocarya fraxinifolia". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T66815986A66816002. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T66815986A66816002.en. Retrieved 16 November 2021.
"Caucasian Wingnut – Keele University Arboretum". Retrieved 2010-10-21.
Phillips, R. (1978). Trees in Britain, Europe & North America. Pan Books, London.
Kasaplıgil, Baki (1977). "Ankara, Kızılcahamam yakınındaki Güvem köyü civarında bulunan son tersiyer kozalaklı-yeşil yapraklı ormanı" [A Late-Tertiary Conifer-Hardwood Forest From the Vicinity of Güvem Village, Near Kızılcahamam, Ankara] (PDF). Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration (in Turkish and English). Ankara: General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration. 88: 94-102.

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