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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Lamiaceae
Subfamilia: Nepetoideae
Tribus: Mentheae
Subtribus: Menthinae
Genus: Pycnanthemum
Overview of species

P. albescens – P. beadlei – P. californicum – P. clinopodioides – P. curvipes – P. flexuosum – P. floridanum – P. incanum – P. loomisii – P. montanum – P. muticum – P. nudum – P. pilosum – P. pycnanthemoides – P. setosum – P. tenuifolium – P. torreyi – P. verticillatum – P. virginianum

Pycnanthemum Michx., Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 7 (1803), nom. cons.
Type species: Pycnanthemum incanum (L.) Michx., Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 7 (1803)


Furera Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 103 (1763)
Koellia Moench, Methodus: 407 (1794)
Brachystemum Michx., Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 5 (1803)
Tullia Leavenw., Amer. J. Sci. Arts 20: 343 (1830)
Pycnanthes Raf., New Fl. 4: 95 (1838)

Native distribution areas:

Continental: Northern America
Regional: USA
Alabama, Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode I., South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin
Regional: Canada
Ontario, Québec

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Michaux, A. 1803. Flora Boreali-Americana: sistens caracteres plantarum quas in America septentrionali collegit et detexit Andreas Michaux. Vol. 2. 340 pp. Parisiis et Argentorati [Paris & Strasbourg]: fratres Levrault. BHL Reference page. : 2: 7–8, pl. 33–34.

Additional references

Govaerts, R.H.A. 2003. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [unavailable for the public] Reference page.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2022. Pycnanthemum in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2022 April 26. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2022. Pycnanthemum. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2022. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2022 April 26. Reference page. 2022. Pycnanthemum. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 26 April 2022.
International Plant Names Index. 2022. Pycnanthemum. Published online. Accessed: April 26 2022.

Vernacular names
English: Mountain Mint
suomi: Vuorimintut

Pycnanthemum is a genus of herbaceous plants in the mint family (Lamiaceae). Species in this genus are often referred to as "mountain mints" and they often have a minty or thyme-like aroma when crushed. All species of Pycnanthemum are native to the United States and Canada.[1][2][3] The center of diversity for the genus is North Carolina with 13 of the 20 species having been collected therein. Nineteen of the 20 species of Pycnanthemum occur in the Eastern US and Canada, and one disjunct species (P. californicum) occurs in California and Oregon.

Pycnanthemum belongs to the true mint subtribe (Menthinae),[4] and it has been shown to be closely related to the Monarda, Blephilia, and the scrub mints of the Southeastern United States.[5] Relationships within the genus remain unresolved. A complicated history of polyploidization paired with cryptic morphologies makes this a challenging group for systematists.[6]


Pycnanthemum albescens Torr. & A.Gray – white-leaved mountainmint – south-central US
Pycnanthemum beadlei (Small) Fernald – North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia
Pycnanthemum californicum Torr. ex Durand – Sierra mint – California
Pycnanthemum clinopodioides Torr. & A.Gray – mid-Atlantic States, Tennessee, Indiana
Pycnanthemum curvipes (Greene) E.Grant & Epling – southeastern US
Pycnanthemum flexuosum (Walter) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. – southeastern US
Pycnanthemum floridanum E.Grant & Epling – Florida mountainmint – Florida, southern Georgia
Pycnanthemum incanum (L.) Michx. – hoary mountainmint, hoary basil, wild basil – Ontario, most of US east of the Mississippi River
Pycnanthemum loomisii Nutt. – Loomis' mountainmint – southeastern US, Ohio Valley
†Pycnanthemum monotrichum Fernald – Virginia but extinct
Pycnanthemum montanum Michx. – southern Appalachians
Pycnanthemum muticum (Michx.) Pers. – short-toothed mountainmint – much of eastern US from east Texas to southern Maine
Pycnanthemum nudum Nutt. – Coastal Plain mountainmint – southeastern US
Pycnanthemum pilosum Nutt. ( = P. verticillatum var. pilosum) – hairy mountainmint, whorled mountainmint
Pycnanthemum pycnanthemoides (Leavenw.) Fernald – southern mountainmint – southeastern US, Ohio Valley
Pycnanthemum setosum Nutt. – awned mountainmint – southeastern + mid-Atlantic US
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium Schrad. – little-leaved mountainmint, slender-leaved mountainmint (= P. flexuosum auct. non Walter) – Quebec, Ontario, eastern + central US
Pycnanthemum torreyi Benth. – Torrey's mountainmint – eastern + east-central US
Pycnanthemum verticillatum (Michx.) Pers. – whorled mountainmint – Quebec, Ontario, eastern + central US
Pycnanthemum virginianum (L.) T.Durand & B.D.Jacks. ex B.L.Rob. – Virginia mountainmint – Quebec, Ontario, eastern + central US


"Pycnanthemum". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
"Pycnanthemum". County-level distribution maps from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2013.
Chambers, Henrietta L. (1961-01-01). "Chromosome numbers and breeding systems in Pycnanthemum (Labiatae)". Brittonia. 13 (1): 116–128. doi:10.2307/2805290. ISSN 1938-436X.
Ryding, Olof (2009-06-01). "Pericarp structure in Monarda (Lamiaceae)". Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie. 127 (4): 453–458. doi:10.1127/0006-8152/2009/0127-0453. ISSN 0006-8152.
Edwards, Christine E.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S. (2006-01-01). "Molecular Phylogeny of Conradina and Other Scrub Mints (Lamiaceae) from the Southeastern USA: Evidence for Hybridization in Pleistocene Refugia?". Systematic Botany. 31 (1): 193–207. doi:10.1600/036364406775971688. ISSN 0363-6445.

Chambers, Henrietta L.; Chambers, Kenton L. (January 1971). "Artificial and Natural Hybrids in Pycnanthemum (Labiatae)". Brittonia. 23 (1): 71. doi:10.2307/2805843. ISSN 0007-196X.


United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2007): Germplasm Resources Information Network – Pycnanthemum. Version of 2007-OCT-05. Retrieved 2011-FEB-18.

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