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Quercus aliena2

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fagales

Familia: Fagaceae
Genus: Quercus
Species: Quercus aliena
Varieties: Q. a. var. acuteserrata – Q. a. var. aliena – Q. a. var. alticupuliformis – Q. a. var. pekingensis – Q. a. var. pellucida

Quercus aliena Blume, 1851
Native distribution areas:
Primary references

Blume, C.L. 1849–1851. Museum Botanicum Lugduno-Batavum sive stirpium Exoticarum, Novarum vel Minus Cognitarum ex Vivis aut Siccis Brevis Expositio et Descriptio. Leiden. Volumen 1. BHL Reference page. : 1:298.

Additional references

Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (1998). World Checklist and Bibliography of Fagales: 1-408. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Quercus aliena in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 27. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Quercus aliena in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 27. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Quercus aliena. Published online. Accessed: Jun 27 2021. 2021. Quercus aliena. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 27.
Hassler, M. 2021. Quercus aliena. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Jun 27. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. World Plants. Synonymic Checklist and Distribution of the World Flora. . Quercus aliena. Accessed: 27 Jun 2021.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Quercus aliena in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Vernacular names
English: Galcham Oak
日本語: ナラガシワ
한국어: 갈참나무
Türkçe: Doğu ak meşesi

Quercus aliena, the galcham oak[2] or oriental white oak,[2] is a species of oak in the family Fagaceae, in the white oak section Quercus.[3][4]

Foliage, showing the grey-white undersides of the leaves

It is a deciduous tree growing to 30 metres (98 ft) tall with a trunk up to 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) diameter with fissured grey-brown bark. The leaves are obovate to oblong, glabrous above, glabrous to densely grey-white hairy below, mostly 10–20 centimetres (3.9–7.9 in) long and 5–14 centimetres (2.0–5.5 in) wide (rarely up to 30 centimetres (12 in) long and 16 centimetres (6.3 in) wide), with 9 to 15 lobes on each side, and a 10–13 millimetres (0.39–0.51 in) petiole.

The flowers monecious catkins. The acorns are 17–25 millimetres (0.67–0.98 in) long and 13–18 millimetres (0.51–0.71 in) wide, a third to a half enclosed in a green-grey cup on a short peduncle; they are solitary or 2–3 together, and mature in about six months from pollination. A long-lived tree, it is slow-growing.[5][6][7]
Distribution and taxonomy
Tree in winter

It is native to East Asian states of Korea, Japan (where it occurs in Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu), mainland China (where it occurs in the provinces of Anhui, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, and Zhejiang) and Taiwan.[5][6]

Three to five varieties are accepted:[5][3]

Quercus aliena var. aliena. Leaf margin wavy; leaf greyish below.
Quercus aliena var. acutiserrata Maxim. Leaf margin serrated, with sharp serration; leaf densely hairy below with greyish hairs.
Quercus aliena var. pekingensis Schottky. Leaf margin serrated, with rounded serration; leaf glabrous or only slightly hairy below.
Quercus aliena var. alticupulifirmis H.Wei Jen & L.M.Wang (not accepted by Flora of China).
Quercus aliena var. pellucida Blume (not accepted by Flora of China).

Hybrids between Quercus aliena and several other oaks in Quercus sect. Quercus are known.[3]

Common names

In China it is called ruìchí húlì, or húlì. Quercus aliena var. acutiserrata is referred to as ruìchí húlì, while var. aliena is referred to as húlì. In Japan it is called naragashiwa.[5][4]

Cultivation and uses

The wood is used in East Asia for boat building and wood flooring for houses. The seeds can be crushed into a powder and used as a soup thickener and for mixing into cereals and breads. The seeds when roasted can also be used as a substitute for coffee.[7] Galls produced by the larvae of insects are a rich source of tannin.[7]

Quercus aliena was introduced to Europe in 1908, but remains rare in cultivation outside of its native area.[8] The taproot is deep, making older plants difficult to move.[7] It grows in full sun or partial shade and tolerates strong winds. It can grow in almost any type of soil as long as not waterlogged.[7]


Species was originally described and published in Mus. Bot. 1(19): 298. 1851. "Quercus aliena Blume". International Plant Names Index (IPNI). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. July 19, 2010. Retrieved July 19, 2010.
Lee, Sangtae; Chang, Kae Sun, eds. (2015). English Names for Korean Native Plants (PDF). Pocheon: Korea National Arboretum. p. 599. ISBN 978-89-97450-98-5. Retrieved 12 March 2019 – via Korea Forest Service.
"Quercus aliena". International Oak Society oak checklist.
"Quercus aliena". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved January 19, 2018.
"Quercus aliena". Flora of China – via, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Su, Mong-Huai; Wu, Sheng-Chieh; Hsieh, Chang-Fu; Chen, Sin-I; Yang, Kuoh-Cheng (2003). "Rediscovery of Quercus aliena Blume (Fagaceae) in Taiwan" (PDF). Taiwania. 48 (2): 112–117.
"Quercus aliena". Plants for a Future.
Bean, W. J. (1976). Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles. 3 (8th revised ed.). John Murray. p. 461.

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