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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Caryophyllales

Familia: Cactaceae
Subfamilia: Cactoideae
Tribus: Cereeae
Subtribus: Rebutiinae
Genus: Rebutia
Species: R. arenacea – R. borealis – R. breviflora – R. canigueralii – R. cardenasiana – R. cintia – R. cylindrica – R. deminuta – R. einsteinii – R. fabrisii – R. fidaiana – R. fiebrigii – R. glomeriseta – R. heliosa – R. krugerae – R. mentosa – R. minor – R. minuscula – R. neocumingii – R. neumanniana – R. oligacantha – R. padcayensis – R. pulvinosa – R. pygmaea – R. ritteri – R. steinbachii – R. steinmannii – R. tarijensis – R. tiraquensis
Source(s) of checklist:

Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Rebutia in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Apr 15. Reference page.


Rebutia K.Schum., Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 102. 1895.

Type species: Rebutia minuscula K.Schum.


Aylostera Speg.
Bridgesia Backeb.
Cintia Kníže & Ríha
Cylindrorebutia Fric & Kreuz.
Digitorebutia Fric & Kreuz. ex Buining
Echinolobivia Y.Itô
Echinorebutia Fric ex Kreuz.
Eurebutia (Backeb.) Vande Weghe
Gymnantha Y.Itô
Gymnorebutia Doweld
Mediolobivia Backeb.
Neogymnantha Y.Itô
Rebulobivia Fric
Scoparebutia Fric & Kreuz. ex Buining
Setirebutia Fric
Spegazzinia Backeb.
Sulcorebutia Backeb.
Weingartia Werderm.


Recent studies (Ritz & al. 2007) has shown that Rebutia sensu lat. is polyphyletic and that several genera are distinct. See also Aylostera, Weingartia. However, this page is a taxonomic opinion and Rebutia s.l. can be supported on morphological and molecular grounds and the polyphyly dealt with through infrageneric circumscriptions if required - see Govaerts et al. (2021) for this circumscription.
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Southern America
Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Peru

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Schumann, K.M. 1895. Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 5: 102.

Additional references

Hentzschel, G. & Augustin, K. 2008, Weingartia, Sulcorebutia und Cintia - an indissociable whole. Gymnocalycium 21(2): 767–782.
Mosti, S., Bandara, N.L. & Papini, A. 2011: Further insights and new combinations in Aylostera (Cactaceae) based on molecular and morphological data. Pakistan J. Bot. 43(6): 2769-2785 [1].
Ritz, M.C. & al. 2007. The molecular phylogeny of Rebutia (Cactaceae) and its allies demonstrates the influence of paleogeography on the evolution of South American mountain cacti. American Journal of Botany 94: 1321–1332.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Rebutia in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Apr 15. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Rebutia. Published online. Accessed: Apr 15 2021. 2021. Rebutia. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Apr 15.
Hassler, M. 2021. Rebutia. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Apr 15. Reference page.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Rebutia in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 04 February 2009.

Vernacular names
español: Quisco
suomi: Pyörökaktukset
polski: Rebucja
svenska: Kranskaktussläktet

Rebutia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cactaceae, native to Bolivia and Argentina. They are generally small, colorful cacti, globular in form, which freely produce flowers that are relatively large in relation to the body. They have no distinctive ribs, but do have regularly arranged small tubercles. They are considered fairly easy to grow and they may produce large quantities of seeds that germinate freely around the parent plant.

The limits of the genus are currently uncertain – in particular whether or not it includes species formerly or currently placed in the genera Aylostera, Cintia, Sulcorebutia and Weingartia. The number of species included varies widely from source to source. A very large number of plants that have been treated in cultivation as species of Rebutia are now generally regarded as varieties, forms or synonyms of a much smaller number of species.


The genus was designated in 1895 by Karl Moritz Schumann[1] and named after Pierre Rebut (1828–1902), a French cactus nurseryman. The type species is R. minuscula, which has been in cultivation since 1887.[2][3]
Limits of the genus

There has been considerable debate about the extent of the genus. In the middle of the twentieth century there was a tendency to separate groups of plants within Rebutia as new genera, e.g. Mediolobivia, whereas towards the end of the century the reverse tendency predominated, with genera previously regarded as separate, such as Weingartia, being subsumed within Rebutia. At the beginning of the twenty-first century there was a broad consensus, as reflected in Kew's list of Vascular Plant Families and Genera, that the following genera should be regarded as synonyms of Rebutia:[4]

Aylostera Speg.
Bridgesia Backeb.
Cylindrorebutia Fric & Kreuz.
Digitorebutia Fric & Kreuz.
Echinorebutia Fric
Eurebutia Fric
Gymnantha Y.Itô
Mediolobivia Backeb.
Mediorebutia Fric
Neogymnantha Y.Itô
Reicheocactus Backeb.
Setirebutia Fric & Kreuz.
Spegazzinia Backeb.
Sulcorebutia Backeb.
Weingartia Werderm.

(The generic names Bridgesia, Spegazzinia, Echinorebutia, Eurebutia, Mediorebutia, Neogymnantha and Setirebutia are invalid, the first two because they are homonyms of Bridgesia Bert. ex Cambess. and Spegazzinia Saccardo respectively, the remainder for lack of any valid publication. Some of these are nevertheless valid names for subdivisions of the genus. )

The history of the taxonomic treatment of the genera Rebutia, Aylostera, Weingartia, Sulcorebutia and Cintia is summarized below.[5]

K. Schumann Britton & Rose Spegazzini A. V. Frič
1895 1896 - 1921 1922 1923 1932 - 1938
genus novum
Rebutia Rebutia Aylostera
genus novum
Digitorebutia, Cylindrorebutia,
Echinorebutia, Setirebutia,
Hymenorebutia, Scopaerebutia
C. Backeberg Donald ICSG Anderson Rowley Mosti & Papini[5]
1966 1975 2001 2009 2011
Rebutia K. Schum. Rebutia
sectio Rebutia
Rebutia Rebutia
subg. Rebutia
Aylostera Speg. Rebutia
sectio Aylostera
Rebutia Aylostera
subg. Aylostera
subg. Aylostera
Mediolobivia Backeb. Rebutia
sectio Setirebutia,
Digitorebutia, Cylindrorebutia
Rebutia Aylostera
subg. Mediolobivia
subg. Mediolobivia
Weingartia Werderm.
syn.Spegazzinia Backeb.
Weingartia Rebutia Rebutia
subg. Weingartia
Sulcorebutia Backeb. Sulcorebutia Rebutia Rebutia
subg. Sulcorebutia
incl. Cintia

The variation in the treatment of the genus is illustrated by the difference between Mosti et al., who in 2011 treated Aylostera and Weingartia (including Cintia and Sulcorebutia) as distinct from Rebutia,[5] and the Plant List, which as of March 2013 separated Cintia, Sulcorebutia and Weingartia from Rebutia, but merged Aylostera.[6]

The number of species is similarly debatable, because of disagreement both over what constitutes the genus and what constitutes a species. A very large number of plants that have circulated as species of Rebutia are now generally regarded as varieties, forms or synonyms of others.[7] E. F. Anderson recognised forty-one species in 2001.[8] The following species are currently accepted:[9]

Rebutia arenacea Cárdenas
Rebutia borealis Diers & Krahn
Rebutia breviflora (Backeb.) D.R.Hunt
Rebutia canigueralii Cárdenas
Rebutia cardenasiana (R.Vásquez) G.Navarro
Rebutia cintia Hjertson
Rebutia cylindrica (Donald & A.B.Lau) Donald
Rebutia deminuta (F.A.C.Weber) Britton & Rose
Rebutia einsteinii Fric
Rebutia fabrisii Rausch
Rebutia fidaiana (Backeb.) D.R.Hunt
Rebutia fiebrigii (Gürke) Britton & Rose
Rebutia glomeriseta Cárdenas
Rebutia heliosa Rausch
Rebutia krugerae (Cárdenas) Backeb.
Rebutia mentosa (F.Ritter) Donald
Rebutia minor (Rausch) Mosti
Rebutia minuscula K.Schum.
Rebutia neocumingii (Backeb.) D.R.Hunt
Rebutia neumanniana (Backeb.) D.R.Hunt
Rebutia oligacantha (F.H.Brandt) Donald ex D.R.Hunt
Rebutia padcayensis Rausch
Rebutia pulvinosa F.Ritter & Buining
Rebutia pygmaea (R.E.Fr.) Britton & Rose
Rebutia ritteri (Wessner) Buining & Donald
Rebutia steinbachii Werderm.
Rebutia steinmannii (Solms) Britton & Rose
Rebutia tarijensis Rausch
Rebutia tiraquensis Cárdenas


Recent research has indicated that the genus Rebutia as currently defined is polyphyletic. Sulcorebutia and Weingartia were kept as separate genera in the study; a summary cladogram for those species studied is shown below.[10]

Rebutia I (R. pseudodeminuta, R. fiebrigii, R. deminuta, R. pygmaea, R. steinmannii and R. einsteinii)

Other genera

Browningia hertlingiana

Browningia candelaris

Rebutia II (R. minuscula and R. padcayensis)

Sulcorebutia, Weingartia and Cintia

Species formerly classified as Weingartia, Sulcorebutia and Cintia show a close relationship to each other and to species of Rebutia with naked pericarpels (Rebutia II), including the type species R. minuscula. The larger group of species of Rebutia studied, those with hairy or bristly pericarpels, form a separate, more distantly related clade (Rebutia I). It is suggested that these be excluded from the genus.[10]

Notes and references

Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde, 5: 102, 1895
N. L. Britton, J. N. Rose, The Cactaceae, Washington, 1920, vol.III, p.45.
Archives départementales du Rhône. death record. Chazay-d'Azergues. 14 March 1902.
"List of genera in family Cactaceae", Vascular Plant Families and Genera, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2013-03-10
Mosti, Stefano; Bandara, Nadeesha Lewke & Papini, Alessio (2011), "Further insights and new combinations in Aylostera (Cactaceae) based on molecular and morphological data", Pakistan Journal of Botany, 43 (6): 2769–2785, retrieved 2013-03-19
"Search results for Aylostera, Cintia, Sulcorebutia and Weingartia", The Plant List
Cf. the list of approximately two hundred names under Rebutia (not to mention those given under other genera) provided in B. Fearn and L. Pearcy, The Genus Rebutia, 1895-1981, Matlock: Abbey Brook, 1981, pp.60-71.
Edward F. Anderson, The Cactus Family, Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, 2001, pp.599-611.
"Rebutia K.Schum". Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
Ritz, Christiane M.; Martins, Ludwig; Mecklenburg, Rainer; Goremykin, Vadim & Hellwig, Frank H. (2007), "The molecular phylogeny of Rebutia (Cactaceae) and its allies demonstrates the influence of paleogeography on the evolution of South American mountain cacti", American Journal of Botany, 94 (8): 1321–1332, doi:10.3732/ajb.94.8.1321, PMID 21636499. Summary cladogram based on Fig. 2.

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