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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Cladus: Commelinids
Ordo: Poales

Familia: Poaceae
Subfamilia: Panicoideae
Tribus: Paniceae
Subtribus: Cenchrinae
Genus: Setaria
Subgenera: S. subg. Cernatum – S. subg. Reverchoniae – S. subg. Setaria
Sectiones: S. sect. Chondrachne – S. sect. Pennisetoides – S. sect. Ptychophyllum

The subgenera and sectiones need updating as the above are largely unplaced.
Species: (112 sensu Simon (2013))
S. acromelaena – S. adhaerens – S. alonsoi – S. apiculata – S. appendiculata – S. arenaria – S. arizonica – S. atrata – S. australiensis – S. austrocaledonica – S. barbata – S. barbinodis – S. bathiei – S. bosseri – S. carinata – S. cernua – S. chondrachne – S. clivalis – S. cordobensis – S. corrugata – S. dielsii – S. faberi – S. fiebrigii – S. finita – S. forbesiana – S. globulifera – S. gracillima – S. grandis – S. grisebachii – S. guizhouensis – S. hassleri – S. homonyma – S. humbertiana – S. hunzikeri – S. incrassata – S. intermedia – S. italica – S. jaffrei – S. kagerensis – S. lachnea – S. latifolia – S. laxa – S. leucopila – S. liebmannii – S. limensis – S. lindenbergiana – S. longipila – S. longiseta – S. macrosperma – S. macrostachya – S. madecassa – S. magna – S. media – S. megaphylla – S. membranifolia – S. mendocina – S. mildbraedii – S. montana – S. nicorae – S. nigrirostris – S. oblongata – S. obscura – S. oplismenoides – S. orthosticha – S. pallidefusca – S. palmeri – S. palmifolia – S. pampeana – S. paraguayensis – S. parodii – S. parviflora – S. paspalidioides – S. paucifolia – S. perrieri – S. petiolata – S. pflanzii – S. plicata – S. poiretiana – S. pseudaristata – S. pumila – S. queenslandica – S. rariflora – S. restioidea – S. reverchonii – S. rigida – S. roemeri – S. rosengurttii – S. sagittifolia – S. scabrifolia – S. scandens – S. scheelei – S. scottii – S. seriata – S. setosa – S. sphacelata – S. stolonifera – S. submacrostachya – S. sulcata – S. surgens – S. taolanensis – S. tenacissima – S. tenax – S. texana – S. vaginata – S. variifolia – S. verticillata – S. verticilliformis – S. villosissima – S. viridis – S. vulpiseta – S. welwitschii – S. yunnanensis

Nothospecies: S. x pycnocoma

Setaria P.Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr.: 51 (1812), nom. cons.
Type species: Setaria viridis (L.) P.Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr.: 51 (1812)


Chaetochloa Scribn., Bull. Div. Agrostol. U.S.D.A. 4: 38 (1897)
Acrochaete Peter, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 40(1 Anh.): 203 (1930)
Cymbosetaria Schweick., Hooker's Icon. Pl. 34: t. 3320 (1936)
Camusiella Bosser, Adansonia, n.s., 6: 105 (1966)
Tansaniochloa Rauschert, Taxon 31: 561 (1982) nom. nov.


Palisot de Beauvois, A.M.F.J. (1812) Essai d'une Nouvelle Agrostographie 51, 178, pl. 13, f. 3.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2013. Setaria in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Nov. 30. Reference page.
Simon, B.K., Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T., Vorontsova, M., Brake, I., Healy, D. & Alfonso, Y. 2013. GrassWorld, Setaria. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Nov. 30. 2013. Setaria. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Nov. 30.
International Plant Names Index. 2013. Setaria. Published online. Accessed: 30 Nov. 2013.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Мяшэй
català: Xereix
čeština: Bér
Deutsch: Borstenhirsen
English: Bristlegrass, Foxtail
suomi: Pantaheinät
日本語: エノコログサ属
한국어: 강아지풀속
lietuvių: Šerytė
Nederlands: naaldaar
polski: Włośnica (roślina)
русский: Щетинник
українська: Чумиза
中文: 狗尾草属

Setaria is a widespread genus of plants in the grass family.[5][6]

The name is derived from the Latin word seta, meaning "bristle" or "hair", which refers to the bristly spikelets.[7]

The genus includes over 100 species distributed in many tropical and temperate regions around the world,[8] and members are commonly known as foxtail or bristle grasses.[2][9][10][11][12][13]

Domesticated crops

Several species of Setaria have been domesticated and used as staple crops throughout history: foxtail millet (S. italica), korali (S. pumila) in India, and, before the full domestication of maize, Setaria macrostachya in Mexico.[14] Several species are still cultivated today as food or as animal fodder, such as foxtail millet (S. italica) and korali (S. pumila), while others are considered invasive weeds.[15] Setaria viridis is currently being developed as a genetic model system for bioenergy grasses.

Other species that have been cultivated as crops include Setaria palmifolia (highland pitpit) of Papua New Guinea, where it is cultivated as a green vegetable; Setaria parviflora (knot-root foxtail), historically cultivated in Mesoamerica; and Setaria sphacelata (African bristle grass) of Sudan, a "lost millet" of Nubia.[16]


Setaria acromelaena
Setaria alonsoi Pensiero & A.M.Anton
Setaria apiculata (Scribn. & Merr.) K.Schum.
Setaria appendiculata (Hack.) Stapf
Setaria arizonica Rominger
Setaria atrata Hack. ex Engl.
Setaria australiensis – scrub pigeon grass
Setaria austrocaledonica
Setaria barbata (Lam.) Kunth – bristly foxtail grass, corn grass, Mary grass
Setaria barbinodis R.A.W.Herrm.
Setaria bathiei A.Camus
Setaria cernua Kunth
Setaria chondrachne (Steud.) Honda
Setaria cinerea T. Koyama
Setaria clivalis (Ridl.) Veldkamp
Setaria cordobensis R.A.W.Herrm.
Setaria corrugata (Elliott) Schult.
Setaria dielsii R.A.W.Herrm.
Setaria elementii (Domin) R.D. Webster
Setaria faberi R.A.W.Herrm. – giant foxtail, Chinese foxtail
Setaria fiebrigii R.A.W.Herrm.
Setaria finita Launert
Setaria forbesiana (Nees ex Steud.) Hook.f.
Setaria globulifera (Steud.) Griseb.
Setaria gracillima Hook.f.
Setaria grandis Stapf
Setaria grisebachii E.Fourn.
Setaria guizhouensis S.L.Chen & G.Y.Sheng
Setaria hassleri Hack.
Setaria homonyma (Steud.) Chiov.
Setaria humbertiana A.Camus
Setaria hunzikeri Anton
Setaria incrassata (Hochst.) Hack. – Vlei bristlegrass
Setaria intermedia Roem. & Schult.
Setaria italica (L.) P.Beauv. – foxtail millet, dwarf setaria, Italian millet
Setaria jaffrei Morat
Setaria kagerensis Mez
Setaria lachnea (Nees) Kunth
Setaria latifolia (Scribn.) R.A.W.Herrm.
Setaria leucopila (Scribn. & Merr.) K.Schum. – plains bristle grass, streambed bristle grass
Setaria liebmannii E.Fourn.
Setaria lindenbergiana (Nees) Stapf
Setaria longipila E.Fourn.
Setaria longiseta P.Beauv.
Setaria macrosperma (Scribn. & Merr.) K.Schum.
Setaria macrostachya Kunth
Setaria madecassa A.Camus
Setaria magna Griseb. – giant bristle grass
Setaria megaphylla (Steud.) T.Durand & Schinz – broad-leaved bristle grass, ribbon bristle grass
Setaria mendocina Phil.
Setaria mildbraedii C.E.Hubb.
Setaria montana Reeder
Setaria nepalense (Spreng.) Müll. Stuttg.
Setaria nicorae Pensiero
Setaria nigrirostris (Nees) T.Durand & Schinz – black-seed bristle grass
Setaria oblongata (Griseb.) Parodi
Setaria obscura de Wit
Setaria oplismenoides R.A.W.Herrm.
Setaria orthosticha K.Schum. ex R.A.W.Herrm.
Setaria palmeri Henrard
Setaria palmifolia (J.Koenig) Stapf – palm grass, highland pitpit
Setaria pampeana Parodi ex Nicora
Setaria paraguayensis Pensiero
Setaria parodii Nicora
Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen – knotroot bristle grass, slender pigeon grass
Setaria paspalidioides Vickery
Setaria pauciflora Linden ex Herrm.
Setaria paucifolia (Morong) Lindm.
Setaria perrieri A.Camus
Setaria petiolata Stapf & C.E.Hubb.
Setaria pflanzii Pensiero
Setaria plicata
Setaria poiretiana – grama negra, gramalote sacha
Setaria pseudaristata (Peter) Pilg.
Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult. – yellow foxtail
Setaria queenslandica Domin
Setaria restioidea (Franch.) Stapf
Setaria rigida Stapf
Setaria roemeri Jansen
Setaria rosengurttii (Nicora)
Setaria sagittifolia (A.Rich.) Walp.
Setaria scabrifolia (Nees) Kunth
Setaria scandens Schrad.
Setaria scheelei (Steud.) Hitchc. – southwestern bristle grass
Setaria scottii (Hack.) A.Camus
Setaria seriata Stapf
Setaria setosa (Sw.) P.Beauv.
Setaria sphacelata (Schumach.) Stapf & C.E.Hubb. – African bristle grass, South African pigeon grass
Setaria stolonifera Boldrini
Setaria submacrostachya Luces
Setaria sulcata Raddi
Setaria surgens Stapf
Setaria tenacissima Schrad.
Setaria tenax (Rich.) Desv.
Setaria texana Emery
Setaria vaginata Spreng.
Setaria vatkeana K.Schum.
Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv. – bristly foxtail
Setaria villosissima (Scribn. & Merr.) K.Schum.
Setaria viridis (L.) P.Beauv. – green foxtail
Setaria vulpiseta (Lam.) Roem. & Schult. – plains bristle grass
Setaria welwitschii Rendle
Setaria yunnanensis Keng f. & K.D.Yu

formerly included[4]

Numerous species were once considered members of Setaria but have since been reassigned to the following genera: Brachiaria, Dissochondrus, Echinochloa, Holcolemma, Ixophorus, Oplismenus, Panicum, Paspalidium, Pennisetum, Pseudoraphis, Setariopsis, and Urochloa
See also

Hendrik de Wit, a botanist who studied Setaria

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Setaria.
Wikispecies has information related to Setaria.

Tropicos, Setaria Ach. ex Michx.
"Genus: Setaria P. Beauv". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-10-05. Retrieved 2013-11-16.
lectotype designated by Hitchcock, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 22(3): 156 (1920)
Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Palisot de Beauvois, Ambroise Marie François Joseph. 1812. Essai d'une Nouvelle Agrostographie page 51 in Latin
Palisot de Beauvois, Ambroise Marie François Joseph. 1812. Essai d'une Nouvelle Agrostographie plate XIII (13), figure III (3) line drawing of Setaria viridis
Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology. Vol. 4: R-Q. CRC Press. p. 2470. ISBN 0-8493-2673-7.
Aliscioni, S., et al. An overview of the genus Setaria (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae) in the Old World: Systematic revision and phylogenetic approach. Abstract. Botany 2004. Salt Lake City. August 3, 2004.
Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 1, 499, 531 狗尾草属 gou wei cao shu Setaria P. Beauvois, Ess. Agrostogr. 51. 1812
Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution maps
Altervista Flora Italiana Archived 2015-02-01 at the Wayback Machine
Atlas of Living Australia
Sanbi Red List of South African Plants
Diao, Xianmin; Jia, Guanqing (2017). "Origin and Domestication of Foxtail Millet". Genetics and Genomics of Setaria. Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models. 19. pp. 61–72. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-45105-3_4. ISBN 978-3-319-45103-9. ISSN 2363-9601.
Dekker, Jack (29 February 2004). "4". In Inderjit (ed.). Weed Biology and Management. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 65–67. ISBN 9781402017612.
Fuller, Dorian Q. (2014). "Millets: Origins and Development". Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology. New York, NY: Springer New York. pp. 4945–4948. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-0465-2_2181.
The Plant List search for Setaria
"Setaria". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2013-11-16.
"GRIN Species Records of Setaria". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-03-03.

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