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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Cladus: Commelinids
Ordo: Poales

Familia: Poaceae
Subfamilia: Panicoideae
Tribus: AndropogoneaeArundinelleaeCentotheceaeChasmanthieaeCyperochloeaeGynerieaeLecomtelleaePaniceae – Paspaleae – Steyermarkochloeae – Thysanolaeneae – Tristachyideae – Zeugiteae – incertae sedis


Panicoideae Link Hort. Berol. 1: 202. (1827)
Typus: Panicum L. Sp. Pl. 1: 55. (1753)


Andropogonoideae Burmeist. (1837)
Centothecoideae Soderst. (1981)
Rottboellioideae Burmeist. (1837)
Saccharoideae (Rchb.) Horan. (1847)
Tristeginoideae Link (1927) nom. illeg.


Link, J.H.F. 1827. Hortus Regius Botanicus Berolinensis 1: 202.
Morrone, O., Aagesen, L., Scataglini, L.M., Salariato, D.L., Denham, S.S., Chemisquy, M.A., Sedea, S.M., Giussani, L.A., Kellogg, E.A. & Zuloaga, F.O. 2012. Phylogeny of the Paniceae (Poaceae: Panicoideae): integrating plastid DNA sequences and morphology into a new classification. Cladistics 28(4): 333-356 DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00384.x Paywall ResearchGate Open access. Reference page.
Soreng, R.J., Peterson, P.M., Romaschenko, K., Davidse, G., Zuloaga, F.O., Judziewicz, E.J., Filgueiras, T.S., Davis, J.I. & Morrone, O. 2015. A worldwide phylogenetic classification of the Poaceae (Gramineae). Journal of Systematics and Evolution 53(2): 117–137. DOI: 10.1111/jse.12150 Paywall PDF. Reference page.
Sánchez-Ken, G.J. & Clark, L.G. 2010. Phylogeny and a new tribal classification of the Panicoideeae s.l. (Poaceae) based upon plastid and nuclear sequence data and structural data. American Journal of Botany 97(10): 1732–1748. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.1000024 Open access Reference page.
Simon, B.K., Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T., Vorontsova, M., Brake, I., Healy, D. & Alfonso, Y. 2013. GrassWorld, Panicoideae. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Oct. 4. 2013. Panicoideae. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Oct. 3.
International Plant Names Index. 2013. Panicoideae. Published online. Accessed: 3 Oct. 2013.
USDA: GRIN Taxonomy for PlantsPanicoideae (23 March 2006)

Vernacular names
English: Millets
magyar: Kölesformák

Panicoideae is the second-largest subfamily of the grasses with over 3,500 species, mainly distributed in warm temperate and tropical regions.[1] It comprises some important agricultural crops, including sugarcane, maize (or corn), sorghum, and switchgrass.

C4 photosynthesis evolved independently a number of times in the subfamily, which presumably had a C3 ancestor.[2]
Systematics and taxonomy

Within the PACMAD clade of grasses, the Panicoideae are sister to a clade made of the four subfamilies Arundinoideae, Chloridoideae, Danthonioideae, and Micrairoideae.[2] A modern phylogenetic classification divides the Panicoideae in twelve tribes corresponding to monophyletic clades; two genera, Chandrasekharania and Jansenella, are unplaced (incertae sedis) but probably belong to tribe Tristachyideae.[1] The three largest tribes, Paniceae, Paspaleae, and Andropogoneae, together with the small Arundinelleae, form the core of the subfamily. The Gynerieae were formerly placed in Arundinoideae, and the basal lineage, the "centothecoid clade" with seven tribes, was formerly seen as separate subfamily, Centothecoideae.[1]

Phylogeny based on chloroplast DNA analyses, showing relationships of tribes within the subfamily (dashed lines indicate uncertain positions; C4 clades flagged):[1][2][3][4]

"centothecoid clade"




Tristachyideae C4





Paniceae C3 & C4



Paspaleae C3 & C4

Andropogoneae C4

Arundinelleae C4


Soreng, Robert J.; Peterson, Paul M.; Romschenko, Konstantin; Davidse, Gerrit; Zuloaga, Fernando O.; Judziewicz, Emmet J.; Filgueiras, Tarciso S.; Davis, Jerrold I.; Morrone, Osvaldo (2015). "A worldwide phylogenetic classification of the Poaceae (Gramineae)". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 53 (2): 117–137. doi:10.1111/jse.12150. ISSN 1674-4918. open access
Grass Phylogeny Working Group II (2012). "New grass phylogeny resolves deep evolutionary relationships and discovers C4 origins". New Phytologist. 193 (2): 304–312. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03972.x. hdl:2262/73271. ISSN 0028-646X. PMID 22115274. open access
Morrone, Osvaldo; Aagesen, Lone; Scataglini, Maria A.; Salariato, Diego L.; Denham, Silvia S.; Chemisquy, Maria A.; Sede, Silvana M.; Giussani, Liliana M.; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.; Zuloaga, Fernando O. (2012). "Phylogeny of the Paniceae (Poaceae: Panicoideae): integrating plastid DNA sequences and morphology into a new classification". Cladistics. 28 (4): 333–356. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2011.00384.x. ISSN 0748-3007.
Besnard, G.; Christin, P.-A.; Male, P.-J. G.; Coissac, E.; Ralimanana, H.; Vorontsova, M. S. (2013). "Phylogenomics and taxonomy of Lecomtelleae (Poaceae), an isolated panicoid lineage from Madagascar". Annals of Botany. 112 (6): 1057–1066. doi:10.1093/aob/mct174. ISSN 0305-7364. PMC 3783238. PMID 23985988. open access

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