Fine Art

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Bignoniaceae
Tribus: Tecomeae
Genus: Tabebuia
Species: T. acrophylla – T. angustata – T. arimaoensis – T. aurea – T. bahamensis – T. berteroi – T. bibracteolata – T. brooksiana – T. buchii – T. bullata – T. calcicola – T. caleticana – T. cassinoides – T. clementis – T. conferta – T. crispiflora – T. del-riscoi – T. densifolia – T. dominguensis – T. dubia – T. elegans – T. elliptica – T. elongata – T. fluviatilis – T. gemmiflora – T. glaucescens – T. gracilipes – T. haemantha – T. heterophylla – T. hypoleuca – T. inaequipes – T. insignis – T. jackiana – T. jaucoensis – T. karsoana – T. lepidophylla – T. lepidota – T. leptoneura – T. linearis – T. maxonii – T. microphylla – T. moaensis – T. multinervis – T. myrtifolia – T. nodosa – T. obovata – T. obtusifolia – T. ophiolithica – T. orinocensis – T. ovatifolia – T. pallida – T. palustris – T. paniculata – T. pilosa – T. pinetorum – T. platyantha – T. polyantha – T. polymorpha – T. pulverulenta – T. reticulata – T. revoluta – T. ricardii – T. rigida – T. rosea – T. roseoalba – T. sagrae – T. sauvallei – T. schumanniana – T. shaferi – T. simplicifolia – T. stenocalyx – T. striata – T. trachycarpa – T. vinosa – T. zanonii
Source(s) of checklist:

Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Tabebuia in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 May 02. Reference page.


Tabebuia Gomes ex DC.

Type species: T. uliginosa (Gomes) DC.


Leucoxylon Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 77 (1838).
Potamoxylon Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 78 (1838).
Proterpia Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 80 (1838).
Couralia Splitg., Tijdschr. Natuurl. Gesch. Physiol. 9: 14 (1842).


Gomes, B. A. 1838: Biblioth. Universelle Genève, ser. 2, 17: 130.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Tabebuia in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 May 02. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2019. Tabebuia. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 May 02. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Tabebuia. Published online. Accessed: May 02 2019.
The Plant List 2013. Tabebuia in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 May 02. 2019. Tabebuia. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 May 02.

Vernacular names
English: Trumpet tree
suomi: Soihtupuut
Avañe'ẽ: Tajy
עברית: איפאה
한국어: 타베브이아
lietuvių: Balamedis
Nederlands: Pau d'Arco kruid
português: Ipê, ipé, peúva, pau-d'arco
русский: Табебуйя
svenska: Tabebujasläktet

Tabebuia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae.[2] The common name "roble" is sometimes found in English. Tabebuias have been called "trumpet trees", but this name is usually applied to other trees and has become a source of confusion and misidentification.

Tabebuia consists almost entirely of trees, but a few are often large shrubs. A few species produce timber, but the genus is mostly known for those that are cultivated as flowering trees.[3]

Tabebuia is native to the American tropics and subtropics from Mexico and the Caribbean to Argentina. Most of the species are from Cuba and Hispaniola.[4] It is commonly cultivated and often naturalized or adventive beyond its natural range. It easily escapes cultivation because of its numerous, wind-borne seeds.[5]

In 1992, a revision of Tabebuia described 99 species and one hybrid.[6] Phylogenetic studies of DNA sequences later showed that Tabebuia, as then circumscribed, was polyphyletic.[4] In 2007, it was divided into three separate genera.[7] Primavera (Roseodendron donnell-smithii) and a related species with no unique common name (Roseodendron chryseum) were transferred to Roseodendron. Those species known as ipê and pau d'arco (in Portuguese) or poui were transferred to Handroanthus. Sixty-seven species remained in Tabebuia. The former genus and polyphyletic group of 99 species described by Gentry in 1992 is now usually referred to as "Tabebuia sensu lato".[7]

Young leaves of Tabebuia aurea

All of the species in the first two columns below were recognized and described by Gentry in 1992.[6] Listed in the third column are species names that have been used recently, but were not accepted by Gentry. The currently accepted synonym for each is in parentheses.

Some recently used names in Tabebuia that were not recognized by Gentry are not listed in the third column below because they apply to species that are now in Handroanthus. Tabebuia spectabilis is an obsolete name for Handroanthus chrysanthus subsp. meridionalis. Tabebuia ecuadorensis is now synonymized under Handroanthus billbergii. Tabebuia heteropoda is now synonymized under Handroanthus ochraceus.

No species that is now assigned to Roseodendron or to Handroanthus is listed below.

Authorities are cited for some of the names below. These can be found in Gentry (1992)[6] or at the International Plant Names Index.[8]

Tabebuia acrophylla
Tabebuia angustata
Tabebuia arimaoensis Britton
Tabebuia aurea – Caribbean trumpet tree
Tabebuia berteroi
Tabebuia bibracteolata (Grisebach) Britton
Tabebuia bullata
Tabebuia cassinoides (Lam.) DC.
Tabebuia conferta
Tabebuia dubia (C.Wright ex Sauvalle) Britton ex Seibert
Tabebuia elliptica
Tabebuia elongata
Tabebuia fluviatilis
Tabebuia haemantha
Tabebuia heterophylla – pink manjack, pink trumpet tree, white cedar, and whitewood
Tabebuia hypoleuca
Tabebuia insignis
Tabebuia jackiana

Tabebuia maxonii
Tabebuia microphylla
Tabebuia myrtifolia
Tabebuia nodosa
Tabebuia obtusifolia
Tabebuia orinocensis (Sandwith) A.H. Gentry
Tabebuia pallida
Tabebuia palustris
Tabebuia pilosa
Tabebuia platyantha
Tabebuia polymorpha
Tabebuia rosea DC. – pink poui and rosy trumpet tree
Tabebuia roseo-alba – white ipê
Tabebuia schumanniana
Tabebuia shaferi
Tabebuia stenocalyx
Tabebuia striata

T. anafensis Urb. (T. myrtifolia var. petrophila)
T. aquatilis (T. fluviatilis)
T. argentea (T. aurea)
T. furfuracea (T. bibracteolata)
T. lapacho
T. leucoxyla (T. obtusifolia)
T. ochracea
T. oligolepis (T. shaferi)
T. pentaphylla (T. rosea)
T. uliginosa (T. cassinoides)

Flower of Pink Poui (Tabebuia rosea)

The description below is excerpted from Grose and Olmstead (2007).[7]

Trees or shrubs. Evergreen or dry season deciduous.
Wood lacking lapachol; not especially dense or hard. Heartwood light brown to reddish brown, not distinct from sapwood.
Leaves sometimes simple; usually palmately 3 to 7(9)-foliate; with stalked or sessile lepidote scales.
Inflorescences usually few-flowered panicles, dichotomously branching, without a well-developed, central rachis.
Calyx coriaceous, spathaceous; irregularly 2 to 3-labiate, rarely 5-dentate.
Corolla yellow in 2 species (T. aurea and T. nodosa); otherwise white to pink, rarely red, often with a yellow throat.
Stamens didynamous; staminode small.
Ovary linear, bilocular.
Ovules in 2 or 3 series in each locule.
Fruit a dehiscent capsule, usually linear, sometimes ribbed, glabrous except for lepidote scales.
Seeds thin, with 2 wings; wings hyaline, membranaceous, and sharply demarcated from the seed body.

Tabebuia is distinguished from Handroanthus by wood that is not especially hard or heavy, and not abruptly divided into heartwood and sapwood. Lapachol is absent. Scales are present, but no hair. The calyx is usually spathaceous in Tabebuia, but never so in Handroanthus. Only two species of Tabebuia are yellow-flowered, but most species of Handroanthus are.

Unlike Roseodendron, the calyx of Tabebuia is always distinctly harder and thicker than the corolla. Tabebuia always has a dichotomously branched inflorescence; never a central rachis as in Roseodendron. Some species of Tabebuia have ribbed fruit, but not as conspicuously so as the two species of Roseodendron.
Tabebuia sprout

The wood of Tabebuia is light to medium in weight. Tabebuia rosea (including T. pentaphylla) is an important timber tree of tropical America.[9] Tabebuia heterophylla and Tabebuia angustata are the most important timber trees of some of the Caribbean islands. Their wood is of medium weight and is exceptionally durable in contact with salt water.[10]

The swamp species of Tabebuia have wood that is unusually light in weight. The most prominent example of these is Tabebuia cassinoides. Its roots produce a soft and spongy wood that is used for floats, razor strops, and the inner soles of shoes.[10]

In spite of its use for lumber, Tabebuia is best known as an ornamental flowering tree. Tabebuia aurea, Tabebuia rosea, Tabebuia pallida, Tabebuia berteroi, and Tabebuia heterophylla are cultivated throughout the tropics for their showy flowers.[5] Tabebuia dubia, Tabebuia haemantha, Tabebuia obtusifolia, Tabebuia nodosa, and Tabebuia roseo-alba are also known in cultivation and are sometimes locally abundant.[11]

Some species of Tabebuia have been grown as honey plants by beekeepers.[12]

Tabebuia heteropoda, Tabebuia incana, and other species are occasionally used as an additive to the entheogenic drink Ayahuasca.[13]

Pau d'arco is promoted as a treatment for a number of human ailments, including cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, "available evidence from well-designed, controlled studies does not support this substance as an effective treatment for cancer in humans", and using it risks harmful side-effects.[14]

Extracts of Tabebula impetiginosa have shown strong potency in fighting multiple bacterial and fungal diseases, like antibiotic resistant staph aureus. (see Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, Vol 31, No 4.)

The nectar of Tabebuia flowers is an important food source for several species of bees and hummingbirds.[12]

Tabebuia rosea is the national tree of El Salvador and the state tree of Cojedes, Venezuela.
Taxonomic history
Trunk of Cuban Pink Trumpet Tree (Tabebuia pallida)

The name Tabebuia entered the botanical literature in 1803, when António Bernardino Gomes used it as a common name for Tabebuia uliginosa, now a synonym for Tabebuia cassinoides, which he described as a species of Bignonia.[15] Tabebuia is an abbreviation of "tacyba bebuya", a Tupi name meaning "ant wood".[16] Among the Indigenous peoples in Brazil, similar names exist for various species of Tabebuia.[17]

Tabebuia was first used as a generic name by Augustin Pyramus de Candolle in 1838.[8][18] The type species for the genus is Tabebuia uliginosa, which is now a synonym for Tabebuia cassinoides.[19] Confusion soon ensued over the meaning of Tabebuia and what to include within it. Most of the misunderstanding was cleared up by Nathaniel Lord Britton in 1915.[20] Britton revived the concept of Tabebuia that had been originated in 1876 by Bentham and Hooker, consisting of species with either simple or palmately compound leaves.[21] Similar plants with pinnately compound leaves were placed in Tecoma. This is the concept of Tabebuia that was usually followed until 2007.

The genus Roseodendron was established by Faustino Miranda González in 1965 for the two species now known as Roseodendron donnell-smithii and Roseodendron chryseum.[22] These species had been placed in Cybistax by Russell J. Seibert in 1940,[23] but were returned to Tabebuia by Alwyn H. Gentry in 1992.[6]

Handroanthus was established by Joáo Rodrigues de Mattos in 1970.[24] Gentry did not agree with the segregation of Handroanthus from Tabebuia and warned against "succumbing to further paroxysms of unwarranted splitting".[25] In 1992, Gentry published a revision of Tabebuia in Flora Neotropica, in which he described 99 species and 1 hybrid, including those species placed by some authors in Roseodendron or Handroanthus.[6] Gentry divided Tabebuia into 10 "species groups", some of them intentionally artificial. Tabebuia, as currently circumscribed, consists of groups 2,6,7,8,9, and 10. Group 1 is now the genus Roseodendron. Groups 3,4, and 5 compose the genus Handroanthus.

In 2007, a molecular phylogenetic study found Handroanthus to be closer to a certain group of four genera than to Tabebuia.[4] This group consists of Spirotecoma, Parmentiera, Crescentia, and Amphitecna. A phylogenetic tree can be seen at Bignoniaceae. Handroanthus was duly resurrected and 30 species were assigned to it, with species boundaries the same as those of Gentry (1992).

Roseodendron was resolved as sister to a clade consisting of Handroanthus and four other genera. This result had only weak statistical support, but Roseodendron clearly did not group with the remainder of Tabebuia. Consequently, Roseodendron was resurrected in its original form.[7] The remaining 67 species of Tabebuia formed a strongly supported clade that is sister to Ekmanianthe, a genus of two species from Cuba and Hispaniola. Tabebuia had been traditionally placed in the tribe Tecomeae, but that tribe is now defined much more narrowly than it had been, and it now excludes Tabebuia.[26] Tabebuia is now one of 12 to 14 genera belonging to a group that is informally called the Tabebuia alliance. This group has not been placed at any particular taxonomic rank.

Cladistic analysis of DNA data has strongly supported Tabebuia by Bayesian inference and maximum parsimony. Such studies have so far revealed almost nothing about relationships within the genus, placing nearly all of the sampled species in a large polytomy.
Gallery of Tabebuia flowers

"Tabebuia aurea"

Tabebuia roseo-alba

Tabebuia impetiginosa at Disneyland


"World Checklist of Selected Plant Families". Retrieved June 3, 2014.
Eberhard Fischer, Inge Theisen, and Lúcia G. Lohmann. 2004. "Bignoniaceae". pages 9-38. In: Klaus Kubitzki (editor) and Joachim W. Kadereit (volume editor). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants volume VII. Springer-Verlag: Berlin; Heidelberg, Germany. ISBN 978-3-540-40593-1
David J. Mabberley. 2008. Mabberley's Plant-Book third edition (2008). Cambridge University Press: UK. ISBN 978-0-521-82071-4
Susan O. Grose and Richard G. Olmstead. 2007. "Evolution of a Charismatic Neotropical Clade: Molecular Phylogeny of Tabebuia s.l., Crescentieae, and Allied Genera (Bignoniaceae)". Systematic Botany 32(3):650-659. doi:10.1600/036364407782250553
George W. Staples and Derral R. Herbst. 2005. "A Tropical Garden Flora" Bishop Museum Press: Honolulu, HI, USA. ISBN 978-1-58178-039-0
Alwyn H. Gentry. 1992. "Bignoniaceae: Part II (Tribe Tecomeae)". Flora Neotropica Monograph 25(part 2):1-150.
Susan O. Grose and Richard G. Olmstead. 2007. "Taxonomic Revisions in the Polyphyletic Genus Tabebuia s.l. (Bignoniaceae)". Systematic Botany 32(3):660-670. doi:10.1600/036364407782250652 (See External links below).
Tabebuia in International Plant Names Index. (see External links below).
Samuel J. Record and Robert W. Hess. 1940. "American timbers of the family Bignoniaceae". Tropical Woods 63:9-38.
Alwyn H. Gentry. 1992. "A Synopsis of Bignoniaceae Ethnobotany and Economic Botany". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 79(1):53-64.
Anthony Huxley, Mark Griffiths, and Margot Levy (1992). The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. The Macmillan Press,Limited: London. The Stockton Press: New York. ISBN 978-0-333-47494-5 (set).
Luciana Baza Mendonça & Luiz dos Anjos (2005): Beija-flores (Aves, Trochilidae) e seus recursos florais em uma área urbana do Sul do Brasil [Hummingbirds (Aves, Trochilidae) and their flowers in an urban area of southern Brazil]. [Portuguese with English abstract] Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 22(1): 51–59. doi:10.1590/S0101-81752005000100007 PDF fulltext
Jonathan Ott. 1995. In: Ayahuasca Analogues: Pangaean Entheogens.
"Pau d'arco". American Cancer Society. January 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
Antonio B. Gomes. 1803. Observationes Botanico-medicae de Nonnullis Brasiliae Plantis. Lisbon.
Alwyn H. Gentry. 1969. "Tabebuia, the tortuous history of a generic name (Bignoniaceae)". Taxon 18(6):635-642.
Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. 4 R-Z. Taylor & Francis US. p. 2621. ISBN 978-0-8493-2678-3. (See External links below).
Augustin Pyramus de Candolle. 1838. "Revue sommaire de la famille des Bignoniaceae". Bibliotheque Universelle de Genève, series 2, 17:130.
Tabebuia In: Index Nominum Genericorum. In: Regnum Vegetabile (see External links below).
Nathaniel Lord Britton. 1915. "Studies of West Indian plants". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 42(7):372-379.
George Bentham and Joseph D. Hooker. 1876. Genera plantarum :ad exemplaria imprimis in Herberiis Kewensibus servata definita vol. 2 part 2:1026-1053. Reeve & Co. London, England. (See External links below).
Faustino Miranda-Gonzalez. 1965. "Estudios acerca de arboles y arbustos de America Tropical principamente de Mexico". Boletin de la Sociedad Botanica de Mexico 29( ):34-49.
Russell J. Seibert. 1940. "New names in Cybistax and Tabebuia". Tropical Woods 63:7-8.
Joáo Rodrigues de Mattos. 1970. "Handroanthus, Um novo gênero para os "ipês" do Brasil". Loefgrenia 50(?):1-4.
Alwyn H. Gentry. 1972. "Handroanthus (Bignoniaceae): A critique". Taxon 21(1):113-114.

Richard G. Olmstead, Michelle L. Zjhra, Lúcia G. Lohmann, Susan O. Grose, and Andrew J. Eckert. 2009. "A molecular phylogeny and classification of Bignoniaceae". American Journal of Botany 96(9):1731-1743. doi:10.3732/ajb.0900004


Lorenzi, H. (1992): Árvores brasileiras: manual de identificação e cultivo de plantas arbóreas nativas do Brasil.

Plants, Fine Art Prints

Plants Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from ""
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World