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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Cladus: Commelinids
Ordo: Poales

Familia: Poaceae
Subfamilia: Chloridoideae
Tribus: Cynodonteae
Subtribus: Traginae
Genus: Tragus
Species: T. andicola – T. australianus – T. berteronianus – T. heptaneuron – T. koelerioides – T. mongolorum – T. pedunculatus – T. racemosus

Tragus Haller, Hist. Stirp. Helv. 2: 203 (1768), nom. cons.
Type species: Tragus racemosus (L.) All., Fl. Pedem. 2: 241 (1785)


Lappago Schreb., Gen. Pl.: 55 (1789), nom. superfl.
Nazia Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 31, 581 (1763), nom. rej.
Echisachys Neck., Elem. Bot. 3: 228 (1790).
Echinanthus Cerv., Naturaleza (Madrid) 1870: 351 (1870).


Haller, A. von (1768) Historia Stirpium Indigenarum Helvetiae Inchoata 2: 203.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2013. Tragus in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Nov. 13. Reference page.
Simon, B.K., Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T., Vorontsova, M., Brake, I., Healy, D. & Alfonso, Y. 2013. GrassWorld, Tragus. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Nov. 13. 2013. Tragus. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Nov. 13.
International Plant Names Index. 2013. Tragus. Published online. Accessed: 13 Nov. 2013.

Vernacular names
català: Tragus
čeština: Bodloplev
English: Burr Grasses

Tragus, commonly called bur gras,[2] burr grass or carrot-seed grass, is a genus of plants in the grass family. It is native to Africa, Australia, and Eurasia with several species on islands in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans plus one species in Argentina.[3][4][5]

Plants are monoecious, stoloniferous, and either annual or perennial depending on the species. The genus has been introduced in subtropical and tropical areas around the world as weeds of disturbed areas. The culms (stems) are ascending or low and mat forming, glabrous, and circular in cross-section. Blades are flat or folded and linear, ligules membraneous and trichomatous. Flowers are born in narrow panicles; the primary branches are spirally arranged, each possessing 2-5 spikelets; each of these spikelets bears a single floret. Each floret has 3 stamens, the anthers of which are pale yellow. The caryopses (grains) are elliptical and golden-brown.[6][7][8]

Four species of Tragus have been introduced to North America: T. australianus, T. berteronianus, T. heptaneuron, and T. racemosus.[9] The natural chromosome count is 2n = 20 in T. berteronianus, and 2n = 40 in T. racemosus.[10] Tragus species utilize C4 photosynthesis. They prevent erosion, but make for poor grazing and in larger numbers indicate overgrazing.[11]


Tragus andicola - Argentina (Catamarca, Jujuy, Salta, Tucuman)
Tragus australianus - Australia, New Caledonia
Tragus berteronianus - Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, China; introduced in North America, West Indies, South America
Tragus heptaneuron - Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania
Tragus koelerioides - Zimbabwe, Namibia, Botswana, Lesotho, South Africa
Tragus mongolorum - Mongolia, China, Indian Subcontinent, Indochina, Madagascar, Mauritius, Réunion
Tragus pedunculatus - Namibia, Botswana
Tragus racemosus - Africa + Eurasia from France and Canary Islands to South Africa to Kazakhstan

formerly included[1]

several species now regarded as better suited to other genera: Brachypodium Bromus Festuca Leptothrium Lolium Pseudechinolaena

Tragus alienus - Pseudechinolaena polystachya
Tragus elatior - Lolium arundinaceum
Tragus gracilis - Brachypodium sylvaticum
Tragus latipes - Leptothrium senegalense
Tragus loliaceus - Lolium arundinaceum
Tragus pinnatus - Brachypodium pinnatum
Tragus pratensis - Lolium pratense
Tragus pumilus - Festuca quadriflora
Tragus senegalensis - Leptothrium senegalense
Tragus unioloides - Bromus catharticus
Tragus varius - Festuca varia


Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
"Tragus". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
Haller, Albrecht von. 1768. Historia Stirpium Indigenarum Helvetiae Inchoata 2: 203
Tropicos, Tragus Haller
Ausgrass2, Grasses of Australia
RLEM 610 grass taxonomy tragus
Flora of China, Vol. 22 Page 495 锋芒草属 feng mang cao shu Tragus Haller, Hist. Stirp. Helv. 2: 203. 1768.
Altervista Flora Italiana, Lappola, European Bur Grass, Klettengras, Tragus à grappes, Carretes, Tragus Archived 2015-02-01 at the Wayback Machine includes photos and distribution maps
Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution maps
"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-06-26. Retrieved 2008-02-23.
Tragus koelerioides
The Plant List search for Tragus

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