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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordoo: Rosales

Familia: Cannabaceae
Genus: Trema
Species: T. andersonii – T. angustifolia – T. cannabina – T. cubensis – T. discolor – T. domingense – T. humbertii – T. integerrima – T. lamarckiana – T. levigata – T. melastomatifolia – T. micrantha – T. nitida – T. orientalis – T. parviflora – T. politoria – T. rigida – T. rugosa – T. tomentosa
Source(s) of checklist:

Hassler, M. 2019. Trema. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2019 Aug. 10. Reference page.

Name

Trema Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 2: 539, 562–563. 1790.

Type species: Trema cannabina Lour.

Synonyms

Sponia Comm. ex Decne.

References

Loureiro, J. de. 1790. Flora Cochinchinensis: sistens plantas in regno Cochinchina nascentes. Quibus accedunt aliae observatae in Sinensi Imperio, Africa orientali, Indiaeque locis variis. Omnes dispositae secundum systema sexuale linnaeanum. Tomus II. Pp. 357–744, [745, err.] Typis, et expensis academicis, Ulyssipone [Lisbon]. BHL Reference page.

Links

Hassler, M. 2019. Trema. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2019 Aug. 10. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Trema in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2019 Aug. 10. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Trema. Published online. Accessed: Aug. 10 2019.
Tropicos.org 2019. Trema. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 10 Aug. 2019.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Trema in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 09-Oct-10.

Vernacular names
eesti: Treema

Trema is a genus of about 15 species of evergreen trees closely related to the hackberries (Celtis), occurring in subtropical and tropical regions of southern Asia, northern Australasia, Africa, South and Central America, and parts of North America.[1] They are generally small trees, reaching 10–20 m (33–66 ft) tall.

Taxonomy

Previously included either in the elm family, Ulmaceae, or with Celtis in the Celtidaceae, genetic analysis has shown the Celtidaceae are best placed in the hemp family, Cannabaceae.[2]
Description

The leaves are alternate, simple, 7–15 cm (2.8–5.9 in) long, ovate-acuminate to lanceolate with a long pointed tip, and evenly serrated margins. The fruit is a small drupe 3–5 mm (0.12–0.20 in) in diameter.
Species associations

Trema species are sometimes used as food plants by the larvae of hepialid moths of the genera Aenetus, including A. splendens, which burrow horizontally into the trunk then vertically down, and Endoclita, including E. malabaricus.

Some Trema species unusually able to live in symbiosis with rhizobia for nitrogen fixation as a non-legume. In this case it is customary to mention these species as a separate genus Parasponia.[3]
Uses
Trema orientalis is widely planted for land reclamation in southern Asia, valued for its tolerance of poor soils due to its ability to fix nitrogen. It is also an invasive species on some Pacific Ocean islands.

Trema comprises the following species:[4][5]

Trema affinis (Planch.) Blume
Trema amboinensis (Willd.) Blume
Trema andersonii (Planch.) Byng & Christenh.
Trema angustifolium (Planch.) Blume
Trema asperum (Brongn.) Blume
Trema cannabina Lour. – Lesser trema
Trema cubense Urb.
Trema discolor (Brongniart) Blume
Trema domingense Urb.
Trema eurhynchum (Miq.) Byng & Christenh.
Trema integerrima (Beurl.) Standl.
Trema lamarckianum (Roem. & Schult.) Blume – West Indian trema, Lamarck's trema
Trema levigatum Hand.-Mazz.
Trema melastomatifolium (J.J.Sm.) Byng & Christenh.
Trema micranthum (L.) Blume – Jamaican nettle tree
Trema nitidum C.J. Chen
Trema orientale (L.) Blume – Pigeon wood
Trema parviflorum (Miq.) Byng & Christenh.
Trema politorium (Planch.) Blume
Trema simulans (Merr. & L.M.Perry) Byng & Christenh.
Trema tomentosum (Roxb.) H.Hara – Poison peach
var. tomentosum (Roxb.) H.Hara
var. viridis (Planch.) Hewson – eastern Australia
Trema vieillardii (Planch.) Schltr.

Species names with uncertain taxonomic status

The status of the following species is unresolved:[4]

Parasponia paucinervia Merr. & L.M.Perry
Parasponia rugosa Blume
Parasponia similis Blume
Trema acuminatissima Boerl.
Trema argentea Blume
Trema blancoi Blume
Trema bracteolata Blume
Trema burmanni Blume
Trema carinata Blume
Trema crassifolia Liebm.
Trema glabrescens Blume
Trema glomerata Blume
Trema griffithii Blume
Trema guinensis Priemer
Trema humbertii J.-F.Leroy
Trema imbricata Blume
Trema integrifolia Baill.
Trema integrifolia Hosok.
Trema lancifolia Ridl.
Trema malaccensis Gand.
Trema morifolia Blume
Trema pallida Blume
Trema philippinensis Elmer
Trema pubigera Blume
Trema rigida Blume
Trema rugosa Blume
Trema scaberrima Blume
Trema sieberi Blume
Trema strigilosa Lundell
Trema strigosa Blume
Trema viridis Blume
Trema vulcanica Merr.

References

"Trema micrantha (L.) Blume Jamaican nettletree". The PLANTS Database. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
Sytsma, Kenneth J.; Morawetz, Jeffery; Pires, J. Chris; Nepokroeff, Molly; Conti, Elena; Zjhra, Michelle; Hall, Jocelyn C. & Chase, Mark W. (2002), "Urticalean rosids: Circumscription, rosid ancestry, and phylogenetics based on rbcL, trnL-F, and ndhF sequences", American Journal of Botany, 89 (9): 1531–1546, doi:10.3732/ajb.89.9.1531, PMID 21665755
Op den Camp, R; Streng, A; De Mita, S; Cao, Q; Polone, E; Liu, W; Ammiraju, JS; Kudrna, D; Wing, R; Untergasser, A; Bisseling, T; Geurts, R (18 February 2011). "LysM-type mycorrhizal receptor recruited for rhizobium symbiosis in nonlegume Parasponia". Science. 331 (6019): 909–12. doi:10.1126/science.1198181. PMID 21205637.
"The Plant List entry for Trema". The Plant List, v.1.1. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Missouri Botanical Garden. September 2013. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
Govaerts R. "Trema Lour". Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 14 December 2020.

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