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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Pandanales

Familia: Triuridaceae
Tribus: KupeaeaeSciaphileaeTriurideae

Genera: KihansiaKupeaLacandoniaPeltophyllumSciaphilaSeychellariaSoridiumTriuridopsisTriuris

Triuridaceae Gardner Trans. Linn. Soc. London 19: 160. (1843); nom. cons.

Type genus: Triuris Miers Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 1: 96. (1841)


Lacandoniaceae E.Martínes & Ramos (1989)


Gardner, G. 1843. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, 19: 160.
Maas-Van de Kamer, H. & Weustenfeld, T. 1998. Triuridaceae. Flowering Plants. Monocotyledons: Lilianae (excluding Orchidaceae) 452-458.
Cheek, M. 2003. Kupeaeae, a New Tribe of Triuridaceae from Africa. Kew Bulletin 58: 939–949.
Cheek, M., Williams, S.A. & Etuge, M. 2003. Kupea martinetugei, a New Genus and Species of Triuridaceae from Western Cameroon. Kew Bulletin 58: 225-228.
Mennes, C.B., Smets, E.F., Moses, S.N., & Merckx, V.S.F.T. 2013. New insights into the long-debated evolutionary history of Triuridaceae (Pandanales). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 69: 994–1004


Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Triuridaceae in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Apr. 17. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2014. Triuridaceae in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 Feb. 2. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2013. Triuridaceae. Published online. Accessed: 16 Sept. 2013. 2013. Triuridaceae. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Sept. 16.
Lohmueller F.A. 2005. The Botanical System of the Plants[1]

Vernacular names
中文: 霉草科

Triuridaceae are a family of tropical and subtropical flowering plants, including nine genera with a total of ca 55 known species (Christenhusz & Byng 2016 [2]). All members lack chlorophyll and are mycoheterotrophic (obtain food by digesting intracellular fungi, often erroneously called 'saprophytes'). The heterotrophic lifestyle of these plants has resulted in a loss of xylem vessels and stomata, and a reduction of leaves to scales.[3]

The flowers of Triuridaceae have tepals which are fused at the base and contain 10 to many free carpels.

The circumscription of Triuridaceae has been unstable and some taxa may be paraphyletic.[4][5]

Triuridaceae have been allied with Alismataceae (based on the free carpels) but the APG III system (2009) places them among the non-commelinid monocots, in the Order Pandanales.

The genus Lacandonia is sometimes placed in its own family, Lacandoniaceae.[3][6]

Triuridaceae are included in the Kew Royal Botanical Garden World Checklist of Selected Plant Families and were reviewed by H. Maas-van de Kamer and P. Maas-van de Kamer in 2005.[7] In this list, the genera Andruris and Hyalisma are subsumed into Sciaphila and Hexuris is subsumed into Peltophyllum, but two new genera Kupea and Kihansia are included. Both genera were described (and placed in Triuridaceae) in 2003. Mabelia and Nuhliantha are fossil genera that were both described in 2002 from the Turonian of New Jersey.[8] The included genera therefore are:

Kihansia Cheek
Kupea Cheek & S.A.Williams
Lacandonia E.Martínez & Ramos
†Mabelia Gandolfo, Nixon et Crepet
†Nuhliantha Gandolfo, Nixon et Crepet
Peltophyllum Gardner (syn. Hexuris Miers)
Sciaphila Blume (syn. Hyalisma Champion)
Seychellaria Hemsl.
Soridium Miers
Triuridopsis H.Maas & Maas
Triuris Miers


Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-05-25. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
Christenhusz, M. J. M. & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
"Neotropical Triuridaceae". Kew Royal Botanical Gardens. Retrieved 2012-10-31.
"Triuridaceae in APG III". Retrieved 2012-10-31.
Maas-van de Kamer, H.; T. Weustenfeld (1998). Kubitzki, K. (ed.). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants Vol. 3. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-64060-6.
Martinez, E.; C.H. Ramos (1989). "Lacandoniaceae (Triuridales): Una nueva familia de Mexico". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 76 (1): 128–135. doi:10.2307/2399346. JSTOR 2399346.
"Triuridaceae". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Kew Royal Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2012-10-31.
Gandolfo, M. A.; Nixon, K. C.; Crepet, W. L. (2002-12-01). "Triuridaceae fossil flowers from the Upper Cretaceous of New Jersey". American Journal of Botany. 89 (12): 1940–1957. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.12.1940. ISSN 0002-9122. PMID 21665623.

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